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 Indian J Med Microbiol  
 

Figure 1: Mechanisms and consequences of inflammation in fear-and anxiety-based disorders. Exposure to acute stressors in individuals with anxiety may facilitate increased immune activity in both the periphery and the central nervous system via stress and trauma effects on neuroendocrine systems and the SNS. Overactivity of the SNS and decreased activity of the PNS promote proinflammatory cytokine release. Suppressed ability of glucocorticoids to inhibit inflammatory processes in these chronic stress states also contributes to a proinflammatory state that can influence neurotransmitter systems, neurocircuitry, and affective behavior. Cytokines may contribute to the maintenance of anxiety by affecting the activity and connections of related brain regions, including the amygdala, hippocampus, insula, mPFC, and the anterior cingulate (ACC). SNS: Sympathetic nervous system, PNS: Parasympathetic nervous system, mPFC: Medial prefrontal cortex. Reprinted by permission from Springer Nature: Neuropsychopharmacology 42 (1):254-270 (Inflammation in fear-and anxiety-based disorders: PTSD, GAD, and beyond. Michopoulos V, Powers A, Gillespie CF, Ressler KJ, Jovanovic T), Copyright (2017)

Figure 1: Mechanisms and consequences of inflammation in fear-and anxiety-based disorders. Exposure to acute stressors in individuals with anxiety may facilitate increased immune activity in both the periphery and the central nervous system via stress and trauma effects on neuroendocrine systems and the SNS. Overactivity of the SNS and decreased activity of the PNS promote proinflammatory cytokine release. Suppressed ability of glucocorticoids to inhibit inflammatory processes in these chronic stress states also contributes to a proinflammatory state that can influence neurotransmitter systems, neurocircuitry, and affective behavior. Cytokines may contribute to the maintenance of anxiety by affecting the activity and connections of related brain regions, including the amygdala, hippocampus, insula, mPFC, and the anterior cingulate (ACC). SNS: Sympathetic nervous system, PNS: Parasympathetic nervous system, mPFC: Medial prefrontal cortex. Reprinted by permission from Springer Nature: Neuropsychopharmacology 42 (1):254-270 (Inflammation in fear-and anxiety-based disorders: PTSD, GAD, and beyond. Michopoulos V, Powers A, Gillespie CF, Ressler KJ, Jovanovic T), Copyright (2017)