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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 1-28

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Date of Web Publication26-Jul-2019

How to cite this article:
. Abstracts. Int J Yoga 2019;12, Suppl S1:1-28

How to cite this URL:
. Abstracts. Int J Yoga [serial online] 2019 [cited 2023 Mar 21];12, Suppl S1:1-28. Available from:

   Impact of Joining a Faith-Based Organization in North India on the Quality of Community Life of its Followers Top

Bidhi Lord Singh, Amarjeet Singh1, Suman Mor2

Centre for Public Health, Punjab University, 1School of Public Health, PGIMER, 2Punjab University, Chandigarh, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: (1) To ascertain the quality of community life of a selected faith-based organization (FBO)-followers in the study area. (2) To explore the opinions of the respondents about the impact of FBO on their quality of community life (QOCL).


  • Study area: The Ramakrishna Mission, Chandigarh
  • Study population: Male or female followers of the organization for the last 1 year
  • Study design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study
  • Sampling: Convenient
  • Sample size: 305
  • Study period: February 15, 2017, to April 15, 2017
  • Inclusion criteria: Male and female of above 18 years age
  • Data collection: The respondents were contacted, and a questionnaire was administered on the spot to record their responses
  • Data collection tool: The ICMR QOCL tool was used
  • Data validation and data analysis: The collected data were entered in MS Excel and analyzed. Results obtained were interpreted
  • Ethical aspect: Informed consent was taken orally and/or consent form was signed by them.

Results: Majority of respondents belonged to higher or upper-middle-income group. Some positive impact of FBOs on QOCL on the followers was witnessed. Respondents were more satisfied with their living standards after joining the FBO. Evident impact of FBO was in terms of satisfaction, relationships, and socialization.

Conclusion: Overall some improvement was reported in QOCL of the respondents after joining the FBO, i.e., Shri Ramakrishna Mission. In most of the domains of QOCL, not much change was reported by the respondent.

Keywords: Study Area, Study Population, Study design

   Meditation Scale Development: Stress, Depression, and Anxiety on Thyroid Patients With Varying Heart Rates Top

Ankita Mishra, Swami Narsingh C. Dev1, Paran Gowda2

Ph.D. Scholar, University of Patanjali, Haridwar, 1Patanjali Research Institute, Patanjali Yogpeeth Haridwar, 2Professor, University of Patanjali, Patanjali Yogpeeth Haridwar Uttarakhand, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: To develop a meditation scale on the relationship between stress, depression, and heart rate variability (HRV) with levels of thyroid hormones and their prognosis by meditation in patients.

Methods: This study is a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data of 64 thyroid patients, aged 18–60 years, collected from Patanjali Ayurved Hospital, Haridwar. A 42-item meditation scale was developed to assess stress and HRV perceptions in thyroid patients. The SPSS package (25.0 version) was used to conduct statistical analyses with single and pair (pre–post-data) sample's test to find the pair differences.

Results: Patients who underwent yoga practices showed significant improvement (P < 0.0001) in their thyroid levels and with a general perception of overall quality of life. Various studies showed that any imbalance in thyroid hormones causes cardiovascular complications with increased stress. Hence, the developed questionnaire may help to evaluate mediation as well as early intervention in progression to unconcealed hypothyroidism associated with psychological disorders and cardiovascular risk.

Conclusion: Findings of this pilot study suggest that a meditation program is feasible to implement in thyroid patients with HRV and psychological disorders and may offer a cost-effective intervention for improving perceived stress, mood, sleep, and blood pressure in this population. Still, no significant relationships are reported in the literature between the HRV parameters and thyroid levels, but we are developing and testing a questionnaire scale for the same.

Keywords: Heart rate variability, hypothyroidism, meditation

   Yogic Breathing With Intermittent Breath Retention Enhances Cardiovascular Health Top

Apar Avinash Saoji, Raghavendra Bhat1, N. K. Manjunath

Associate Professor & Head - MD Program, Deputy Director (Academics), S-VYASA, 1Associate Professor, S-VYASA University, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Background: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) are the known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. We examined the effects of 20 min regulated yogic breathing with intermittent breath retention (experimental session) at a frequency of 3 breaths per minute on the cardiovascular and autonomic functions.

Methods: Thirty-nine volunteers (22 females) with an age range of 18–30 years (group mean ± standard deviation, 20.6 ± 1.82 years) were recruited. Electrocardiogram and respiration were recorded using ADInstruments, and cardiovascular variables were assessed through Finapres noninvasive blood pressure monitoring system before and after the experimental session or breath awareness (control session). The volunteers were randomly assigned to either experimental or control session.

Results: There were significant reductions observed in the heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output, following the experimental session along with an increased BRS. No changes were observed following the control session. The time domain components of HRV indicated an enhanced HRV following experimental session. Similar trends were observed after the control session but with lesser magnitude. An increase in low-frequency components and a decrease in high-frequency components of HRV were observed following the experimental session. There was no significant change in frequency domain components following the control session.

Conclusion: The current study suggests increased HRV with enhanced BRS among healthy individuals following yoga breathing session. Such yoga breathing, thus, may be useful for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: Heart Rate Variability, Baroreflex sensitivity, autonomic functions

   Triguna Personality and Heart Rate Variability Top

Archana Maurya, Narendra Singh, Paran Gowda

Ph.D Research Scholar, University of Patanjali, 1Assistant Professor, University of Patanjali, Haridwar, 2Professor, University of Patanjali, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: The objective of the research study is to find the heart rate variability versus triguna personalities, viz., Rajasic (active), Sattvic (balanced), and Tamasic (inactive). The model hypothesizes that those three qualities (independent variable) are related to heart rate variability (dependent variable).

Methodology: A sample size of 300 persons is considered in this study. We developed a personality development item questionnaire and compared with Vedic personality development online questionnaire were used to validate the triguna theory and compared with the observed heart rate variability. Cronbach alpha, KMO, and correlation coefficients are calculated using SPSS version 25.

Results: These findings provide evidence for the validity of the triguna questionnaire with heart rate variability. Data show that Rajasic people have more heart rate variability than tamasic categories. Sattvic people are found to have normal heart rates and are treated as a standard.

Keywords: Rajasic (active). Sattvic (balanced) and Tamasic (inactive)

   A Review on the Effect of Yoga in Managing Stress and Preventing Cardiac Diseases Top

Abhijit Dutta

PG Trainee, Department of Organon of Medicine, National Institute of Homoeopathy, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Background: Stress is one of the most common mental and emotional problems worldwide. Sometimes, it is helpful, but, in most of the cases, it actually hampers the patient's quality of life and can precipitate major cardiac problems and other lifestyle diseases in the course of time. As because the present scenario is full of the reasons implicated to stress, management becomes necessary.

Objective: To review and evaluate the role of yoga in managing stress and thus preventing cardiac problems.

Methods: Extensive search of literature was done using key words such as yoga and stress, yoga and cardiac disorders, etc., from different databases such as AMED, MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO and Google Scholar, and about 36 relevant papers were found on the study of yoga in stress. Among those, only 9 most relevant were selected for further evaluation.

Results: The largest body of evidence pertained to the efficacy of yoga in managing stress. There is heterogeneity of quality of some trials and some evidence were inconclusive. However, as a note of final thought, it can be said that yoga can really manage stress, anxiety, and other psychological disturbances effectively.

Conclusion: This review study actually supports the evidence of yoga which are prescribed in ancient scripture and literature. However, different forms of yoga practices are the effective tool for managing stress; thus, with the thorough yoga practice, a new, fresh, and stress-free society can be developed and a better prospect will be created in preventing cardiac and other lifestyle disorders.

Keywords: Yoga, stress, cardiac disorders

   Cardioprotective Effect of Ayurvedic Herbal Formulations in Isoproterenol-Induced Hypertrophy in H9C2 Cardiomyocytes Top

Acharya Balakrishna1, Yashika Rustagi1, Abhishek Gupta1, Kunal Bhattacharya1, Anurag Varshney1,2

1Drug Discovery and Development Division, Patanjali Research Institute, 2University of Patanjali, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Cardiac hypertrophy is the abnormal thickening of the interventricular wall due to the enlargement of cardiomyocytes along with the altered cellular sarcomeric structures. The disease is associated with several heart diseases such as hypertension, heart failure and ischemia, and valve diseases. In the present study, using isoproterenol (ISP) – a nonselective beta-androgenic agonist – we induced hypertrophy in the rat heart myoblast (H9C2) cells. Several cellular biomarkers such as loss of cell viability, lipid peroxidation (LPO), mitochondrial activity, changes in antioxidant levels, and clinical/nonclinical genetic markers were studied. Modulation of hypertrophy was investigated using two Ayurveda formulations, Arjuna Kwath (AK) and Hridayamrit Vati (HA), manufactured by Patanjali Ayurveda Ltd. The results showed that the ISP induced hypertrophy in the H9C2 cells in the time- and dose-dependent manners. ISP exposure led an increase in LPO and mitochondrial activity levels in the H9C2 cells. ISP also induced a decrease in antioxidant levels and upregulation of genetic biomarkers, ANF, ACTC1, COX-2, LOX-1, NOX-2, 4, cardiolipin, TNN-I, and TNN-T levels. Cotreatment of the ISP-treated H9C2 cells with the AK and HA significantly reduced the levels of LPO release and mitochondrial activity and increased cellular antioxidant levels. These formulations considerably reversed the ISP stimulated upregulation of clinical and nonclinical genetic markers, specific to the hypertrophy in the H9C2 cells. Overall, the study showed AK and HA to act as antioxidants and reduce the ISP-induced oxidative stress in the H9C2 cells and the development of cardiac hypertrophy.

Keywords: Cardiac hypertrophy, Isoproterenol, lipid peroxidation

   Importance of a Dedicated Meditation Space Within the Hospital Premises Top

Akanksha Sharma

Yoga Instructor, Cardiac- Anesthesia, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: To study the importance of a dedicated meditation space within the hospital premises.

Methods: The patients undergoing cardiac surgery at Cardiothoracic Center, AIIMS, New Delhi, suffering from congenital heart disease (CHD), aged 8–18 years were included in this study. They were randomly allocated to three groups. Group-A received the conventional counseling as per the institutional protocol. Group-B was given meditation session bed-side to the nonambulatory patients or those who could not come to meditation room due to poor health conditions. Group-C was taken up for specialized Rajyoga meditation training by a trained Rajyoga teacher from Rajyoga Education and Research Foundation of Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University in a specialized designated high-energy meditative space. “Happiness Index” measured on a 7-point Likert scale was assessed at baseline, immediately after training program, and after 1 and 3 months by blinded researchers. A change of four units in “Happiness Index” was considered as improvement.

Results: The patients receiving routine counseling showed only 16.6% improvement. The patients receiving bed-side meditation showed 52% improvement, whereas patients practicing medication at the dedicated meditative high-energy space demonstrated significant improvement of 85%.

Conclusion: The study clearly demonstrates the importance of meditation and high-energy meditative space for improving ability to restore happiness in patients undergoing surgery due to CHD. It is predicted further that meditation practices can have significant impact on postoperative recovery and healing and help maintain optimistic attitude toward treatment due to its direct relationship with calmness of mind.

Acknowledgments This study is supported by grant from DST to evaluate cognitive aspects related to meditation.

Keywords: Rajyoga Meditation, “Happiness Index, meditation

   Effect of Meditation on Quality of Life After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial With 5-Year Follow-up Top

Amaravathi Eraballi, Nagendra Hongasandra Ramarao, Nagarathna Raghuram

Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, Bengaluru. E-mail: [email protected]

Background: Quality of life (QOL) of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients has not proven with meditation, which improves the health in diseases such as coronary artery disease and low back pain.

Aim: Meditation improves QOL after CABG. Objective: Comparison of QOL at the 1st and 5th years with meditation and supine rest.

Methodology: Three hundred elective CABG males of 35–65 years were included in the study, and individuals with valve diseases, stroke, and ejection fraction <50% and females were excluded from the study. Stress (PSS), QOL, and positive affect negative affect scale administered at baseline, 1st year and 5th years.

Results: Nonparametric tests were used for data analysis. Physical health improved with meditation (P = 0.001) with difference (P = 0.001) at the 1st year than the 5th year. Psychological health improves with meditation (P = 0.001) with difference at the 1st year (P = 0.001) and 5th year (P = 0.05). Social health improved with meditation (P = 0.03) with difference at the 1st year (P = 0.01) and nonsignificant at the 5th year. Environmental health improved with meditation (P = 0.001) with difference at the 1st year (P = 0.001). It improved with meditation (P = 0.04) with no difference at the 5th year. Total QOL improves with meditation (P = 0.001) with difference at the 1st year (P = 0.001), but not at the 5th year.

Conclusion: Meditation improves QOL at the end of the 1st year than the 5th year and reduces perceived stress and negative affect after CABG.

Keywords: Coronary artery bypass graft, coronary artery disease, meditation, stress, WHOQOL-BREF

   Role of Anahata Chakra and Cardiac Plexus in Cardiac Activity Top

Athul TP

E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: Ayurveda is a complete science of life, where we get elaborated descriptions about the prevention of disease in a healthy individual as well as the management of diseases. The chakra has its own importance in Ayurveda. Traditional writings mention 40 chakras which can be considered significant. The chakras are thought to vitalize the physical body and to be associated with interactions of a physical, emotional, and mental nature. Each chakra can be correlated to a neurological plexus on the basis of its location. Anahata Chakra can be compared to cardiac plexus. Thus it is very important to study the literature on Anahata Chakra and cardiac plexus. To study whether there is any similarity in Anahata Chakra and cardiac plexus.

Methods: Anahata means sound without any break; this indicates the relation of this chakra on heart, as heart is an organ which pumps blood without any stoppage. The Anahata Chakra has 12 Dalas which can be compared to the 12 branches of the cardiac plexus on the basis of the numeration and structure of the chakra. The 12 branches are right deep cardiac, left deep cardiac, anterior pulmonary, posterior pulmonary, superficial cardiac, cardiac ganglion of Wrisberg, right coronary, ventricular branch, left coronary, endocardiac, and Remak and Bibder's ganglia.

Conclusion: A chakra is the center of activity that assimilates and expresses life force energy. These chakras serve as an energetic pathway of the nerve plexuses that function in the physical body. Each chakra can be correlated to a neurological plexus on the basis of its location. The Anahata Chakra may be correlated to the cardiac plexus on the basis of its location which is said to be heart and on the basis of its numeration.

Keywords: Chakra, cardiac plexus, nerve plexuses

   Role of Herbo-Metal Bhasma Yogendra Ras in Ameliorating Cardiac Hypertrophy Top

Acharya Balakrishna1, Yashika Rustagi1, Abhishek Gupta1, Kunal Bhattacharya1, Anurag Varshney1,2

1Drug Discovery and Development Division, Patanjali Research Institute, 2University of Patanjali, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Humans are exposed to a variety of physiological and psychological stress due to the fast pace of modern society. This results in the induction of cardiac hypertrophy and associated morbidity, which under chronic conditions may lead to mortality. In the present study, using isoproterenol (ISP), a nonselective beta-androgenic agonist, cardiac hypertrophy was induced in the rat heart myoblast (H9C2) cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. ISP exposure in the H9C2 cells led to an increase in lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial activity. ISP also induced a decrease in antioxidants levels, along with upexpression cardiac biomarkers such as ANF, ACTC1, COX-2, LOX-1, NOX-2, NOX-4, cardiolipin, TNNI, and TNNT levels. While YR alone induced the loss of cell viability in the H9C2 cells up to some extents, cotreatment of the ISP-treated H9C2 cells with YR significantly increased the cell viability. Reduction in cellular oxidative stress as represented by the LPO release, mitochondrial activity, and increased cellular antioxidant levels was also observed in the H9C2 cells cotreated with YR and ISP. Similarly, treatment of YR considerably reversed the ISP stimulated upregulation of clinical and nonclinical genetic markers, associated with the H9C2 cells hypertrophy. Taken together, the study showed that YR reduces the ISP-induced oxidative stress and associated cardiac hypertrophy in the H9C2 cells, by acting as an antioxidant agent. Thus, YR showed the potential as a therapeutic Ayurveda formulation for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and associated diseases.

Keywords: Mitochondrial activity, cells hypertrophy, cardiac hypertrophy

   Impact of Yogic Intervention on Anxiety and Depression Level in Hypertensive Patients at Lifestyle Disease Clinic: A Pilot Study Top

Anvita Singh, Monika Pathania1, Vineeta Thapaliyal1

Department of AYUSH, AIIMS, 1Department of General Medicine, AIIMS, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Background: Yoga is natural way of exercising and relaxing the human systems. In the current scenario, lifestyle diseases can be effectively controlled by yogic practices.

Objective: To study the effect of yogic practices on anxiety and depression level in patients with hypertension.

Methods: Study design: This was a descriptive study. The study population consists of hypertension participants as per the ACC/AHA criteria. The present study was carried out at collaborative Life Style Disease Clinic of Department of General Medicine and Department of AYUSH, AIIMS, Rishikesh, India. A total of 24 cases enrolled in the present study through proper counseling by experts. Baseline parameters of participants were measured during enrolment in study. Assessment of anxiety and depression was done on Hamilton anxiety rating scale and Hamilton depression rating scale. Yoga program designed for patients included some particular asanas, pranayama, and relaxation practices for about 1 h every day.

Results: All basic parameters of participants enrolled for the study were measured. After applying paired t-test, significant reduction in anxiety (P = 0.032) and depression (P < 0.001) levels was observed in group practicing yoga as intervention after compared with baseline parameters.

Conclusion: These are interim results, and the study is ongoing at Life Style Disease Clinic at AIIMS, Rishikesh. However, to date, the results show that yogic practice may be a good supportive treatment of anxiety and depression in hypertensive patients.

Keywords: Hypertension, Yoga programme, lifestyle disease

   Reducing the Risk of Heart Disease by Yogic Practices Top

C. Arunkumar, C. Sathish Kumar

Ist year B.Sc Student, Assistant Professor, 1Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International School of Textiles and Management, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

Background: Yoga encourages deep, slow, rhythmic, abdominal breathing which relaxes the nervous system and calms the mind, while meditation techniques can help reduce anxious thought patterns contributing to anxiety.

Objectives: Yoga is meant to be a system of increasing awareness and decreasing the risk of heart disease. Much healing can be done through asanas, but it takes practice and consistency. Moreover, meditation helps reduce stress and anxiety, which can lower heart rate and blood pressure while reducing harmful hormones.

Methods: Medline/PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and IndMED were combed up to October 2013. The main outcome actions were mortality, nonfatal cardiac events, exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, and modifiable cardiac risk factors. Risk of bias, quality of evidence, and strength of the endorsement for or against yoga were assessed according to the Cochrane Collaboration and grade recommendations.

Results: Yoga and meditation can calm the brain, relieves stress, and reduces anxiety and mild depression. Therapeutic for high blood pressure. Thereby, the risk of cardiovascular disease is reduced.

Conclusion: Based on the results of this review, weak recommendations can be made for the ancillary use of yoga for patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, and cardiac dysrhythmia at this point.

Keywords: Asanas, anxiety, heart disease

   A Comparative Study on Immediate Effects of Deep Breathing, Bhramari Pranayama, and Om Chanting on Cardiovascular Variables in Hypertensive Patients Top

Preethi, Y. L., Balaram Pradhan1

Y. L (Co author) MBBS, MD, SVYASA, Division of Yoga and Humanities, 1Ph.D Associate Professor, SVYASA, Vivekananda Road, Kalluballu Post, Anekal, Jigani, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: The objective is to comparative the immediate effects of deep breathing (DB), Bhramari Pranayama (BhrP), and Om chanting on cardiovascular variables in hypertensive patients. Hypertension is a major public health problem and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Yoga has been shown to be an effective adjunct therapy in its management.

Methods: Sixty hypertensive patients admitted at Arogyadhama, Prashanti Kutiram, Bangalore, were recruited for the study, 20 patients for each group. Each group was instructed to perform DB, BhrP, and Om chanting for 5 min. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were recorded before and immediately after the intervention. RPP was calculated using HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP).

Results: Postintervention statistical analysis revealed a significant reduction in HR (Cohen d = 0.28 for DB, Cohen d = 0.85 for BhrP, Cohen d = 1.06 for Om chanting) and RPP (Cohen d = 0.42 for DB, Cohen d = 0.62 for BhrP, Cohen d = 0.78 for Om chanting). Following Om chanting, a significant reduction in DBP (Cohen d = 0.64). There were no significant differences found between groups.

Conclusions: Om chanting found to be good influence on cardiovascular variables. This may be due to resetting of autonomic cardiovascular rhythms as a result of increased vagal modulation and/or decreased sympathetic activity and increased cardiorespiratory coupling. Studies with larger sample are necessary to validate the findings of this study.

Keywords: Deep Breathing, Bhramari Pranayama, Om chanting

   Brainwaves as Markers of Psychological Correlates Top

Priya S. Sharma, Abha Singh1

Student, B.A + M.A Clinical Psychology (Dual), Amity Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences, 1Director (Research), Amity Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences, AUUP, Noida, Uttar Pradesh. E-mail: [email protected]

The aim of this research was to establish a relationship between brainwaves and intelligence, creativity, emotional competence, and spiritual intelligence. A total of 30 participants were administered Raven's progressive matrices, emotional competence scale, spiritual intelligence scale, and verbal creativity test. Next, an electroencephalogram reading was recorded. The relative power of each electrode was correlated with the individual scores on psychological tools. The participants were segregated in low, average, and high groups depending on their scores. Significant positive correlation was established between alpha relative power and intelligence in frontal lobe; theta relative power and subdomains of creativity fluency and flexibility in prefrontal, frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes; and beta relative power and the subdomain of emotional competence and “adequate expression and control of emotions” in prefrontal, frontal, and temporal lobe. Furthermore, theta waves were dominant in participants with below average intelligence, and delta waves correlated with average level of intelligence. Theta, delta, and alpha waves were correlated with average level of flexibility; above average level of flexibility was correlated with beta and delta waves; theta wave was correlated with below average level of fluency, while dominant alpha waves were correlated with above average level of fluency. In the light of spiritual intelligence, beta waves were negatively, and delta waves were positively, correlated with high level of spirituality. Positive correlation between theta waves and negative correlation between alpha and beta waves with average level of emotional competence were established. It was concluded that significant correlations can be obtained between brainwaves relative power and different psychological correlates.

Keywords: Brainwaves, creativity, emotional competence, intelligence, spiritual intelligence

   Effects of Meditation as an Add-On Therapy With Homeopathic Treatment for a Case of Essential Hypertension Top

Bhargab Chattopadhyay, Mahesh Bhattacharyya1

Senior Research Fellow, Department of Science and Technology Govt. of West Bengal, 1Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Govt. of West Bengal, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: Essential hypertension is a primary hypertension where there is no obvious cause but effecting 80%–90% of the total hypertension population and diagnosed by consisting high blood pressure (BP) level of systolic = 140 and diastolic = 90 mmHg. It has already been found that Homoeopathic medicine has some effects on it, but yet not that satisfactory, so as an add-on therapy, meditation is taking care of to observe the outcome after a desirable period of time.

Methods: A 55-year-old male, nonsmoker, nondiabetic with normal BMI, was complaining of exertional dyspnea for the last 1.5 years, and on examination, his BP was found to be high 146/90 mmHg and echocardiography (ECG) shows incomplete RBBB with nonspecific ST elevation. The patient was treated with individualized Homeopathic medicine with Rauwolfia mother tincture in empirical doses for 1 year, but there was no significant improvement. ECG shows LVEF of 64% and reduced diastolic compliance. Then, the patient was asked to do meditation for 30 min time daily along with the Homeopathic treatment, and after a monthly follow-up for consecutive 3 months, his baseline BP and quality of life are being compared.

Results: The patient shows clinical improvement in his dyspnea, both in intensity and in frequency, and his BP comes down to a systolic: 134–140 mmHg and diastolic: 82–86 mmHg persistently.

Conclusions: Meditation is found to be effective along with Homeopathic treatment to control the BP level, but further studies must be done with big sample size and more appropriate protocol for the better understanding of the immense possibilities of meditation.

Keywords: Meditation, Homoeopathic treatment, add-on therapy

   Comparative Study of Cardiovascular Parameters (Blood Pressure and Heart Rate), Hemoglobin, and Stress Level Among Yoga Practitioners and Non-Yoga Practitioners Top

Chitra Kashyap, Anvesh Chauhan

E-mail: [email protected]

Background: Yoga is an ancient Indian science and art of living which nourishes body, mind, and inner spirit. Stress is one of major causative factors of cardiovascular disease, and Yoga as a mind–body relaxation technique is one of most effective remedies for all deep-rooted stress-related problems; further, it has a calming positive effect on the nervous and cardiovascular system.

Objective: The present study was conducted to determine and compare the stress level, level of hemoglobin, and cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure and heart rate) between the youngsters who practice yoga and who do not practice yoga.

Methods: A comparative study was conducted on 30 students (18–23 years) among them, 15 are regular yoga practitioners and 15 are nonyoga practitioners. Parameters such as stress level, hemoglobin, heart rate, and blood pressure of both groups were assessed, and data were analyzed and compared through t-test.

Results: The analysis shows that there is a significant difference in the level of stress (P < 0.05), hemoglobin (P < 0.01), heart rate (P < 0.01), systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05), and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: The findings indicate that regular practice of yoga contributes significant positive effect on cardiovascular system and a considerable reduction in stress level. Yoga enhances parasympathetic activity and can modify coronary heart disease risk factors, including dyslipidemia and high blood pressure.

Keywords: Cardiovascular system, haemoglobin, Yoga

   Neurocardiac Effects of Audible Mantram Meditation During Short-Term Practice Top

Venugopal R. Damerla

MD ABoIM. E-mail: [email protected]

Introduction: The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays a vital role in the regulation of the physiological processes during normal and pathological conditions. Heart rate variability (HRV) is regarded as a major indicator of the self-regulatory strength and balance of parasympathetic and sympathetic impulses having effects on interplay of hormones and endothelial function. HRV is a well-accepted predictor of catastrophic coronary events as a result of atherosclerosis, in which pro-inflammatory sympathetic overactivity plays a major role. Our study focused on the evaluation of the effects of the ancient audible practice of Mantram chanting meditation on HRV.

Methodology: Caucasian subjects without prior exposure to Mantram sound meditation were randomly assigned to two different sounds based on monotone repetition after a standardized instructional session. One was the Hare Krishna Mantram (Sanskrit experimental sound), sequence mentioned in the devotional texts of the Vedic tradition, and the other was a concocted sound (Sanskrit placebo). Changes in the vagal tone were measured with respect to both time domain and frequency domains. Five-minute baseline and postmeditation repeated measurements were obtained on different days, over the next 6 weeks. The subjects who chanted the placebo/sham sound switched to the experimental sound at the 4-week mark for the next 2 weeks. All subjects completed an experience survey.

Results: Paired t-test results for all HRV parameters achieved statistical significance in the test group. Statistical significance in all the above measures of HRV was also observed on switching the control group placebo sound chanting to the experimental sound. HRV waveforms showed relaxation; a pattern and experience survey suggests an increase in attributes associated with higher self-regulation.

Conclusion: This study suggests statistically significant efficacy data and that a larger randomized study is feasible to test the potential of the utilization of the daily practice of audible meditation on Mantram found in the devotional texts of Vedic tradition, in clinical settings. Further research on sustained tone and attentive repetition of specific sounds as an adjunct in future lifestyle intervention research studies for prevention of stress-induced chronic diseases is needed.

Keywords: Mantram, devotional texts, meditation

   Indian Medicinal Herbs: An Effective Remedy for Cardiovascular Disorders Top

Devashish Bhardwaj

B.A.M.S., D.Y.N.S., Ph. D. Chief Physician, Ayurveda, Yoga and Panchakarma Arogyadham, Jammu Yatri Bhawan (Trust), Haridwar (U.K.). E-mail: [email protected]

Background: Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) are a common problem worldwide among middle-aged and elderly people and have become increasingly common in younger individuals too. It is a leading cause of deaths and disability worldwide. Herbal medicines have been used in patients with CVDs for centuries. A recent increase in the popularity of herbal medicine (natural products) has revived interest in herbal remedies that have been used for the treatment of CVDs.

Aim: In herbal, remedy of CVDs aims to clean the body toxins and restore digestion to avoid further increase of blockages in the body. The purpose of this review is to provide updated, comprehensive, and categorized information on the history and traditional uses of some herbal medicines that affect the cardiovascular system to explore their therapeutic potential and evaluate future research opportunities.

Methods: Systematic literature searches were carried out, and the available information on various medicinal plants traditionally used for CVDs was collected via Ancient literature (Ayurveda samhitas and Nighantus), Internet search (using PubMed, SciFinder, Google Scholar, and Web of Science), and Library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals.

Results: This article highlights the cardiovascular effects of potent herb botanicals, namely Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna), Digitalis purpurea (Hridpatri), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Dalchini), Convolvulus pluricaulis (Shankhpushpi), Rauwolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha), Boerhavia diffusa (Punarnava), Crataegus oxyacantha (Bansangli), Commiphora mukul (Guggul/Devadhupa), Allium sativum (Garlic), and Linum usitatissimum (Flaxseed). Although these herbs have been used in the treatment/therapy of heart diseases for hundreds of years, the current research methods showed that they can be utilized effectively in the treatment of CVDs, including ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias, dyslipidemia, and hypertension.

Conclusion: Although the mechanisms of action are mention very shortly, there is enough evidence of their efficacy in various CVDs. However, for bringing more objectivity and to confirm more systematic, well-designed animal and randomized clinical studies with sufficient sample sizes are necessary. Multidisciplinary research is still required to exploit the vast potential of these plants. Potential synergistic and adverse side effects of herb–drug interactions also need to be studied. These approaches will help in establishing them as remedies for CVDs and including them in the mainstream of health-care system.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disorders, Indian medicinal herbs

   Iris-Diagnosis: A Quantitative Noninvasive Tool to Evaluate Manifestation of Perseverative Cognition Top

Garima Mishra, Vishal Bhat

Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhan Samsthan, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Background: Perseverative cognition, known as the “cognitive representation of stressor” is associated with incidence of several noncommunicable diseases. It is also known to affect prognosis of diseases. Iris-diagnosis is an evolving system of quantitative noninvasive diagnosis that believes in representation of diseases as various signs in Iris. Common embryological origins for iris from two of the three neural layers and most organs form the scientific rationale for iridology. This study was designed with an objective to assess manifestation of signs specific to various levels of perseverative cognition.

Methods: Thirty-eight subjects of age range 25–58 years were recruited in the study following consenting procedures. Iris images, basic demographic details, and perseverative thinking questionnaire were obtained. The perseverative cognition scores were grouped into equally divided four quadrants. Changes in color, texture, and presentation of various iris signs at areas corresponding to mental function were evaluated in both the iris.

Results: Subjective analysis of iris signs indicates increased incidence of nerve rings, and darkening of the second and third major zones with increasing perseverative cognition. Furthermore, the presence of undifferentiated autonomic nerve wreath across individuals with varying levels of perseverative cognition might be due to hampered digestive process and lifestyle. We propose that appearance of equilibrium line in the iris might be one among the first iris signs to manifest with stress.

Conclusion: The findings are suggestive that increased presence of lesions in the mental area of Iris topography might correlate with the levels of perseverative cognition. The presence of equilibrium line in the iris might represent allostatic process. We speculate the origin of iris signs might be influenced by the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis and the gut–brain axis. Objective measures to correlate iris signs to physiological conditions are required for further validation.

Keywords: Perseverative cognition, mental function, Equilibrium

   Gayatri Mantra Chanting on Attention, Memory, Anxiety, and Mental State: A Prospective Observational Study Top

Shambo Samrat Samajdar, Shatavisa Mukherjee, Anushka Ghosh, Sumalya Sen, Santanu K Tripathi1

Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, School of Tropical Medicine, 1Professor & Head, Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Background: Gayatri is a mantra of physical, emotional, and mental healing, purifying the subtle karmas, protection from the onslaught of obstacles, and a mantra of spiritual awakening or self-realization. Effect of Vedic chanting on consciousness and mental state has been long researched. The present study assessed the effect of Gayatri Mantra chanting on attention, memory, anxiety, and mental state.

Methodology: This prospective study included 45 athletes who were randomly allocated to three different study arms (15 each) – one group subjected to normal meditation without chanting any mantra, other group subjected to add on Gayatri Mantra chanting while meditation, and the third group was kept as control (without any meditation). All athletes were evaluated for attention (using 6-letter cancellation, digit letter substitution), memory (using digit span test [forward, backward] and flicker fusion test), state-trait anxiety inventory, and mental state using mini-mental state examination at both baseline and after 3 months. Results were statistically analyzed.

Results: Athletes with Gayatri Mantra chanting showed significant improvement in attention parameters, with increased responses in six-letter cancellation and digit letter substitution. Significant improvement in memory domain was noted with higher responses for digit span test compared to the other two arms. Less missed attempts and prompt response to audio and visual stimuli for flicker fusion test were noted for the Gayatri Mantra group. Marked improvements in both state-and-trait anxiety were noted for the Gayatri Mantra chant group with lesser improvement for only meditation group. Equal improved mental state was observed for both meditating group compared with the control.

Conclusion: Gayatri Mantra benefits have played an important role in improving the professional and personal lives of the people. In spite of hectic pressure, they remain committed to their goals and remain positive in face of failures. Chanting verses play a crucial role in the well-being of the people. Gayatri Mantra chanting has significant effects on attention, memory, anxiety, and mental state.

Keywords: Self- realization, chanting, mental state

   A Heart Rate Variability Study on Effect of Relaxation Technique With Music Therapy as an Adjunctive Management in Generalized Anxiety Disorder Patients Top

Richa Kumari, Yogesh Singh, Vikram Singh Rawat, Latika Mohan

E-mail: [email protected]

Background: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by excessive and uncontrollable worry about general events. It is associated with physical and systemic symptoms and has high prevalence in society. Hence, it is need of the hour to find noninvasive and adjunctive approach to reduce its symptoms. Relaxation techniques may prove to be effective in giving relief to such patients. This approach is underexplored and lacks data in terms of objective measures in GAD patients.

Objective: The objective is to investigate the effect of relaxation technique such as Shavasan with music therapy as an adjunctive approach to treat GAD patients.

Materials and Methods: Twenty patients were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. Under a structured protocol, relaxation technique, i.e., Shavasan, with music therapy was given for 20 min after a rest period (baseline) of 10 min. Heart rate variability was recorded simultaneously. Baseline measurement of 5 min was taken as preintervention followed by the last 5 min recording as postintervention. Paired t-test was used to compare groups.

Results and Conclusion: On HRV analysis, average heart rate was found to decrease significantly (P = 0.03) and SDRR was found to increase (P = 0.01) indicating increased parasympathetic tone postintervention. Further, SD2 and LF values were found to increase significantly (P = 0.01 and P = 0.04 respectively) suggestive of an increase in sympathetic tone as well. Thus, the effect of relaxation on sympathovagal balance can be further explored.

Keywords: Shavasan, music therapy, Average Heart rate

   Effect of Music Therapy on Anxiety Level Among the Cardiac Patients of Selected Hospitals of Pune City Top

Janak Joshi

Lecturer, Geetanjali College of Nursing, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Introduction: It has been found that anxiety leads to increased cortisol levels, which inhibit the immune system and blood clotting. Lastly, conditions that arouse anxiety increase pain. Thus, it is to the patient's advantage to keep anxiety at a minimum. Patients with heart disease who also suffer from an anxiety disorder have a significantly higher risk of having a heart attack, heart failure, stroke and death, compared to other heart disease patients, according to Dutch scientists. Music therapy combined with other relaxation techniques based on guided imagery, reduces pain, depression and anxiety. According to a Cochrane (2009) review of 23 clinical trials, it was found that some music may reduce heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure in patients with coronary heart disease.

Objectives of the Study:

  1. To assess the level of anxiety among the patient with cardiac disorders
  2. To assess the anxiety level among the cardiac patient after the use of music therapy
  3. To find out association between the anxiety level and selected demographic variables.


  • Hypothesis

    • Null hypothesis (H0): There will be no significant reduction in the anxiety level of cardiac patients after implementation of music therapy
    • Hypothesis (H1): There will be significant reduction in the anxiety level of cardiac patient after implementation of music therapy.

  • Research design: Quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design
  • Setting of the study: Wadia Cardiac Hospital, Pune, and Jahangir Hospital, Pune
  • Sample: In this study, samples were cardiac patients in selected hospitals in city
  • Sample size: 60 (30 control and 30 experimental group)
  • Sampling technique: Nonprobability convenient sampling technique
  • Variables: Two types of variables were identified in this study

    • Independent variable – Music Therapy (Raag Darbari)
    • Dependent variable – Anxiety level of cardiac patients.

Results: The result shows that in experimental group, majority (86.7%) of the patients had moderate anxiety (score 5–9) and 13.3% of them had severe anxiety (score 10–14) in pretest, whereas in posttest, all of them had mild anxiety (score 0–4). In control group, 56.7% of them had moderate anxiety (score 5–9) and 43.3% of them had severe anxiety (score 10–14) in pretest, whereas in post-test, 50% of them had severe anxiety (score 10–14) and another 50% of them had moderate anxiety (score 5–9). This indicates that the music therapy improves anxiety of the patients with cardiac disorders.

Investigator applied two-sample t-test for comparison of experimental and control groups. The two series compared are the effects on anxiety scores (posttest–pretest) for the corresponding groups. t value was found to be 16.22 at 58 degrees of freedom. Since corresponding P value is 0.000 (<0.05), null hypothesis was rejected. This indicates that the music therapy improves anxiety of patients of cardiac disorders. Further, the mean effect of the experimental group is 6.2 and that of the control group is −0.4. Thus, the anxiety of experimental group shows significant improvement after music therapy, whereas the anxiety worsens for control group.

Conclusion: Applying music therapy along with treatment significantly improves the patient's condition to reduce the level of anxiety. Patient who are clinically stable with cardiac disorders can take music therapy (Raag Darbari) to reduce the level of anxiety.

Keywords: Anxiety, heart attack, Music Therapy


  1. Moser DK. “The rust of life”: Impact of anxiety on cardiac patients. Am J Crit Care 2007;16:361-9.
  2. Fretchen K, Dunken H. Anxiety disorders: a risk of heart diseases. Am Heart J 2005;32. Available from:
  3. Norsk D, Soria M. Annual heart congress. Nyborg Strand 2003;12:34-7.
  4. Polit and Hungler. Nursing Research Principles and Methods. 5th ed. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Publications; 1995. p. 105-9.
  5. Subramanyam KP. Musical intervention on gradual tempo change and aesthetic responses of music. J Music Res 2001;9:12-5.

   Effect of Meditation and Pranayama on Hypertension and Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Review Top

J. Paramaguru Ragul, R. Priya Dharshini, N. Sharon, G. Athi Veera Sundara Pandian, Jincy Sundaran1

II BNYS, JSS Institute of Naturopathy & Yogic Sciences, 1Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, JSS Institute of Naturopathy & Yogic Sciences, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: The aim of the review is to find out the role of meditation and pranayama on hypertensive- and cardiac-rehabilitated patients.

Background: Hypertension has become the main risk factor for mortality in cardiovascular patients. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the force of contraction of heart and vasoconstriction. At times of stress, sympathetic nervous system stimulates the adrenal gland which in turn produces a large amount of catecholamines causing increase in blood pressure. Meditation has an effect on sympathetic-adrenal medulla system which results in decreased hormonal levels by the regulation of sympathetic tone. Pranayama has an effect on the stimulation of autonomic nervous system, which helps in regulating high blood pressure.

Methods: The above evidence has been reviewed from peer-reviewed indexed medical journals from PubMed, Google Scholar, and standard textbooks. We have reviewed about 50 research articles using that keywords hypertension, cardiac rehabilitation, meditation, and pranayama. Among these, seven research articles were based on cardiac rehabilitation-hypertension-meditation.

Results: From the review, it is understood that the blood pressure could be greatly influenced by the continuous practice of meditation and pranayama which acts on hormones such as catecholamines and glucocorticoids which are responsible for hypertension. Yoga-cardiac rehabilitation has the potential to save people and transform the care of acute myocardial infarction patients.

Conclusion: This review may be used to do an experimental study in a broad spectrum to include meditation as a regular lifestyle practice to improve cardiac health and to prevent the occurrence of the disease.

Keywords: Meditation, Pranayama, Cardiac rehabilitation

   Role of Bhakti Yoga and Meditation in Reducing Anxiety, Depression, Stress, and Pain: Maintaining Healthy Heart Rate Variability Top

Kirti Maurya, Govind Mishra1, Paran Gowda2

Ph.D Research Scholar, University of Patanjali, 1Assistant Professor, University of Patanjali, 2Professor, University of Patanjali, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: The objectives of the study are to maintain healthy heart rate variability through meditation and Bhakti yoga practices with the patients suffering from anxiety, depression, stress, and pain.

Methods: We have selected 64 (40 males and 24 females) anxiety, stress, depression, and general pain patients from Patanjali Ayurvedic Hospital, Haridwar, India. The sample selection was based on Cohen's G formula and divided them into two yoga and control groups. Yoga group were given practices such as AUM chanting, meditation, and devotional songs, under the expert guidance of a yoga instructor, while the control group were not given any practices. A “t-” test was conducted to assess the anxiety, stress, and depression using hospital anxiety depression scales using SPSS version 25, for both groups.

Results: A significant difference in anxiety and depression levels at P < 0.001 was found. These are shown in the form of a bar diagram. The paired mean values show clear decrease in anxiety and depression levels from 12.50 ± 2.00 to 7.63 ± 1.14 and from 13.56 ± 2.13 to 7.88 ± 1.20, respectively. The Bhakti yoga methods, AUM chanting, Mantra Japa, prayer, have increased the pain tolerance level of the patients.

Conclusion: Anxiety, stress, pain, and depression are modern lifestyle noncommunicable diseases where pharmaceutical drugs are not much effective. Meditation and bhakti yoga practices played a significant role in reducing anxiety, depression, and stress. An innovative integral method of practices as a package is recommended.

Keywords: Meditation and bhakti yoga, depression

   A Comparative Study on Different Japa Techniques on Heart Rate Variability Spectrum Top

Kadambini Acharya, Balaram Pradhan, Sanjib Patra1, Vikas Rawat1

SVYASA, Division of Yoga and Humanities, 1Division of Yoga and Life Sciences, SVYASA, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: Yoga texts talks Japa techniques which claim to be redirect the thought process toward the meditative state. Earlier studies showed that different yoga techniques had influenced on sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system based on the nature of yoga techniques.

Methods: Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed in 119 healthy yoga students of undergraduate and postgraduate courses, in three kinds of Japa described in traditional texts. These three types of Japa are loud chanting (Vaikari Japa), lips movement chanting (Upansu Japa), and silent (mental) chanting (Manasika Japa), and the control group was silent sitting (no chanting). All the students were stratified and random sampling was used to assign them in four different groups. The HRV measurement was made before (5 min), during (10 min), and after (5 min) for each groups.

Results: During Vaikari Japa, there was a significant increase in the low-frequency power (P < 0.05) and decrease in the high-frequency power (P < 0.05, post hoc analysis following ANOVA, during compared to pre) in the frequency-domain analysis of the HRV spectrum.

Conclusions: Vaikari Japa had alone made the significant increase in sympathetic arousal. In another group, nonsignificant sympathetic arousal was found.

Keywords: Japa, Chanting, yoga

   Effect of Customized Yoga on Blood Oxygenation and Cardioautonomic Responses at High Altitude Top

Kaushik Halder, Mantu Saha, Anjana Pathak, Abhishek Bandyopadhyay1, Thinles Chosphel

Exercise Physiology and Yoga Lab (EPYL), 1Centre for Research and Training in Yoga (CRTY), Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences (DIPAS), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: In high-altitude (HA) inadequate bio-availability of oxygen (O2) to tissues reduces partial pressure of O2 (PO2) in alveolar air and also in arterial blood causing deficiencies in cardiopulmonary system, hemodynamics, acid–base balance, and autonomic function, eventually leading to HA illness. Scanty of research has been found that yoga improves blood oxygenation (SpO2) and balances autonomic function under hypobaric hypoxia. The aim of the present study is to observe physiological effect of 1 month customized yoga training at HA.

Methods: Under longitudinal study, physiological responses were recorded in healthy males staying at 690 feet (Sea level [SL]; Control: n = 7, Yoga: n = 24) and at 14,500 feet (HA; Control: n = 7, Yoga: n = 24). Study variables, including resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), SpO2, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and HR variability were assessed at SL and HA. A predesigned customized hatha yoga package was imparted daily for 1 h in the morning by a certified yoga therapist for 1 month at SL. Statistical analysis was done using standard statistical packages.

Results: Body weight was decreased in both the groups upon induction to HA, but the data were statistically not significant. HR, BP, and sympathetic reactivity increased whereas SpO2 and PEFR decreased in both the groups upon induction to HA. It was observed that changes in control group were much higher than yoga group.

Conclusion: Practice of hatha yoga lowers HR and BP and improves SpO2, PEFR, and autonomic function at HA.

Keywords: Blood oxygenation, blood pressure, high altitude, heart rate variability, hypoxia, yoga

   Effect of Indian Dietary Spices on Serum Lipid Profile Effect of Indian Dietary Spices on Serum Lipid Profile Top

K. P. Kochhar, Tamoghna Ghosh

Department of Physiology, AIIMS-Delhi Tamoghna Ghosh, MBBS, AIIMS-Delhi, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: Today, when nutrition is again becoming the cornerstone for preventive and promotive health, controlled clinical blinded trials need to be done before we can prescribe dietary spices as nutraceuticals. We explored the effect of traditional Indian dietary spices on serum lipoprotein, cholesterol, and triglycerides.

Methods: The study was conducted on an outpatient basis on six healthy human volunteers (20–70 years, 5 males, 1 female). Each volunteer had a spicy/spice-free period followed by a spice-free/spicy dietary period separated by 2 weeks washout period. During the experimental period, 5 g Indian spice mixture (garam masala, consisting of cumin, black pepper, cardamom, cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, and coriander) was also included in the diet. Total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured by the enzymatic method. Serum triglycerides were also determined by the enzymatic method.

Results: There was trend toward improvements in HDL-C in both spicy and spice-free periods, but there was an inverse trend of lowered values in spicy versus slightly higher value in spice-free period for serum, TC, and triglycerides. There was a small but significant increase in HDL-C/TC ratio. There was no significant change in body weight during either dietary period.

Conclusions: The present study is a novel study in the continuum of studies to assess future research perspectives in spices by targeting study of “sensitive” and “labile” population with hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.

Keywords: Dietary spices, cholesterol, dietary period

   Heart Sutra (Meditation on Emptiness) Enhances Positive Mental Health Top

Kulpreet Kaur, Rita Kumar, Abha Singh

Amity Institute of Psychology and Allied Sciences, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India . E-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: To explore heart sutra (meditation on emptiness) as a predictor of positive mental health.

Methods: A sample of 10 participants, 5 males and 5 females, age 20–45 years, graduate, were administered an intervention on heart sutra (meditation on emptiness) for 6 weeks, to assess mental health using brief resilience test and positive affect negative affect schedule, and qualitative analysis was recorded postinterventions through behavioral checklist on thoughts, emotions, and action. A pretest–posttest and t-test were conducted on the participants.

Results: Difference observed in the pretest, posttest means, significant difference observed in the P value of t-test, enhanced resilience scores, enhanced positive affect, and decreased negative affect was observed. Further qualitative analysis indicated usage of more positive words in expression of thoughts emotions and action.

Conclusions: The present paper attempts to understand the effect of heart sutra: emptiness meditation as a predictor of positive mental health. Finding indicates the scope of application of heart sutra in the realm of health and wellness.

Keywords: Emptiness, heart sutra, meditation, mental health, negative affect, positive affect, resilience

   Meditation With Yoga Practice Improves Cardiac Health by Reducing Features of Metabolic Syndrome Top

M. Parameswaran1, S. Malathy1, Rabindranath1, Ulaganathan Mabalirajan1,2

1Department of Yoga For Human Excellence, Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India and The World Community Service Center, Aliyar, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, 2Molecular Pathobiology Laboratory, Cell Biology and Physiology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)-Indian Institute of Chemical biology, (IICB), Kolkata, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Background: Thanks to the fast westernization and sedentary lifestyle, the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MS) is rapidly increasing. On the other hand, almost every country in the Asian continent has self-sufficient health-oriented cultural, traditional practices. Kundalini yoga is a systematic and integrated practice for body, mind, and soul. During meditation, one's Kundalini power is aroused from Mooladhar to higher level of Chakras such as Agna and Thuriyam.

Objective: In this study, we explored the effects of Kundalini yoga with meditation on the key parameters ofMS.

Methods: The World Community Service Centre (WCSC) was founded in 1958 by Vethathiri Maharishi who introduced Simplified Kundalini Yoga (SKY). The WCSC conducted meditation camps in which simple exercises, initiation to awaken the Kundalini life force, and various chakra meditations are practiced. In these individuals (n = 188), metabolic and blood profiles have been performed before and after the SKY practices.

Results: We found significant improvement in three metabolic parameters relevant to MS: (a) cholesterol, (b) blood glucose (fasting and postprandial and glycosylated hemoglobin), and (c) blood pressure. The spiritual Chakras in the body are located where neuroendocrine glands are located we hypothesized that SKY strategy may lead to metabolic homeostatic harmony by regulating the neural axis. In another set of people in Delhi, 3 months long SKY practice had shown a significant alteration in crucial neurotransmitters such as orexin A, oxytocin, neurotensin, and substance P.

Conclusions: Thus, we found the scientific understanding behind the yoga and meditation mediated beneficial effects in patients with the features of MS.

Keywords: Kundalini yoga, Kundalini power, chakras

   Effects of Nada Yoga in the Management of Coronary Artery Disease: A Case Report Top

M. Tamilarasi, N. Mangaiarkarasi1

Final Year BNYS, Govt Yoga and Naturopathy Medical College and Hospital [Gynmch], Affilated to the Dr. MGR Medical University, 1Professor, Department of Yoga Therapy and Pathology, Govt Yoga and Naturopathy Medical College and Hospital [Gynmch], Affilated to the Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai. E-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: The purpose of this single case study is to report the effect of Nada Yoga in the management of coronary artery disease (CAD) which has a significant therapeutic effect in the shortest period.

Methods: A male patient aged 53 years was diagnosed as CAD with an investigation of ECHO left ventricular ejection fraction of 50%, sclerotic aortic valve, mild global hypokinesia of the left ventricle, reduced diastolic compliance on admission. The patient underwent daily intervention of meditation with Om chanting and Bija Mantra of Anahatha Chakra accompanied with Hirdhaya mudra for 15 min at morning advised to follow regularly after hospitalization due to NSTEMI with the history of IDDM.

Results: The results showed significant changes of daily parameters which were average with blood glucose level, cholesterol, and enzyme level improved changes in 2 weeks, with the significant changes in ECHO and healing of diabetic foot.

Conclusion: In this study, the Nada Yoga practice viewed a positive effect on the management of CAD and blood glucose level. Dietary restriction also consistently associated with lower risk of CHD and reduces cholesterol level. Nada Yoga demonstrates noteworthy and improved cardiac/vascular function and wound healing. Thus, Nada Yoga intervention can be followed for active management of CAD.

Keywords: Angiogram, coronary artery disease, ECHO, Nada Yoga

   Prevalence of Depression in Patients of Coronary Artery Disease in Punjab Top

Mandip Kaur, S. M. S. Chahal

Department of Human Genetics, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the major chronic diseases occurring worldwide due to high prevalence of the risk factors related to the changing lifestyle. Depression is common among CAD patients and is associated with worse outcomes. However, there is limited number of studies on this important relationship from India.

Aims and Objective: To study the prevalence of depression in CAD patients and controls of Punjab and to compare the results with other studies reported in the literature.

Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional survey comprised of 200 patients of CAD and 200 healthy controls matched for age and sex. The subjects were evaluated for depression with the help of a standard Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) questionnaire.

Results: Of 200 CAD patients, 78 were found depressed, yielding a prevalence rate of 39% of depression. Severe depression (PHQ ≥15) was present in 8 (4%) subjects, moderate depression (PHQ ≥10) in 12 (6%), and mild depression in 58 (29%) of the patients.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrates higher prevalence of depression in patients with CAD in comparison to healthy control subjects. Therefore, it is recommended that physicians should assess depression in each and every CAD patient.

Keywords: Coronary artery disease, depression, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Punjab

   Effect of Yoga and Naturopathy in the Management of Risk Coronary Artery Disease: A Case Report Top

N. Mangaiarkarasi, N. Manavalan1, Senthil Kumar2

Professor, Department of Yoga Therapy and Pathology, Govt Yoga and Naturopathy Medical College and Hospital (GYNMCH), Affiliated to the Dr. MGR Medical University, 1Principal and HOD (Naturopathy) Govt Yoga and Naturopathy Medical College and Hospital (GYNMCH) Affiliated to the Dr. MGR Medical University, 2(Yoga and Naturopathy), GYNMCH, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: This case study reports on the effect of yoga and naturopathy management of coronary artery disease (CAD), which has a significant therapeutic effect in the shortest period.

Methods: A male subject aged 46 years was diagnosed with severe coronary artery triple-vessel disease, with an Investigation of ECHO revealed ejection fraction of 37% on admission. He underwent daily intervention of yoga (40–50 min) with breathing practice, Mudra (Hirdaya), relaxation methods, and Pranayama. Naturopathy protocol underwent alternative enema and massage, GH Pack, cold compress, foot bath, and reflexology with constructive diet protocol with vegetable juices (200 ml), mixed vegetable salad (200 g), fruit salad (200 g) thrice a day, and sprouts (50 g) once a day for a period of 12–13 weeks. On discharge, the patient was advised to follow-up monthly once.

Results: The result shows significant changes of daily parameters and average with blood pressure, glucose level, and cholesterol, and in the ECHO, the result shows improved changes in 12 weeks with an ejection fraction of 40%. The patient showed significant changes in ejection fraction of 43% in the 16th week.

Conclusion: In this study, the yoga and naturopathic viewed positive effect in the management of CAD. Yogic intervention is an important modulator of Blood Pressure and cardiovascular disease. Constructive diet is consistently associated with a lower risk of CHD and reduced cholesterol levels. Naturopathic treatments demonstrate net worthy and improved cardiac/vascular function. Thus, yoga and naturopathic intervention can be followed for active management of CAD.

Keywords: Angiogram, coronary artery disease, ECHO, yoga and naturopathy

   Impact of Yoga and Meditation on Mental Well-Being of the Practitioners Top

Manjot Singh

E-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: We wanted to find the effects of yoga and meditation on the mental well-being of the practitioners in Chandigarh who practiced at least 2 months of yoga and meditation.

Methods: Fifty-two yoga practitioners were interviewed. Of these 52 subjects, 38 practitioners were practicing yoga as per Common Yoga Protocol formed by the Ministry of AYUSH. Eighteen practitioners were practicing traditional Yoga (in association with their yoga master). Yoga trainers/Acharyas and students or practitioners who were reported to be practicing yoga for at least 2 months were included in a cross-sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative methodology. The interview schedule was used to do a self-assessment survey.

Results: Of all yoga practitioners, 63.5% were females and 36.5% were males. The average age was 35.6 years. Participants reported improved overall mental well-being with improved memory recall, strengthening of will, and reduction in laziness and sleep. Better sense of optimism, oneness, self-awareness, empathy, compassion, peace, contentment, along with better concentration, lengthened attention span, and slowing down of thoughts were reported.

Conclusions: Practice of yoga and meditation improves the mental well-being of the practitioners. This observation should be confirmed with more clinical research on effects of yoga and meditation.

Keywords: Yoga and Meditation, Mental Well-Being, Yoga practitioners

   The Important Signs of the True Master or an Accomplished Yogi Top

Manjot Singh

E-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: We wanted to explore the signs of a True Master or an Accomplished Yogi. Bestowment of the grace of Shaktipat and Samadhi from an Accomplished Yogi has been among the main signs that usually stand out in the literature about the great masters. True Master can also breathe through the breath of the disciples (Pranapat). Healing transmissions leading to spontaneous healing or surprisingly fast recovery which cannot be explained medically and appearing in the dreams of the disciples are other important signs of a true master.

Methods: Purposive sampling was used as there are very few living Kriya Yoga Masters. An Accomplished Yogi (Yogiraj Gurunath Siddhanath, seemed to be an Accomplished Yogi according to his literature, disciples, and unique style of experiential Satsang where he shares his Samadhi with the masses) was studied through experiential observation and with testimonial interviews given by 20 Kriya Yogis who were selected conveniently.

Results: Testimonial interviews and experiential observations suggest that Yogiraj Gurunath Siddhanath bestows the grace of Shaktipat and Pranapat and shares his Samadhi according to the degree of attunement of a recipient. It is also observed that he transmits healing energy and appears in dreams of his disciples to guide them.

Conclusions: Grace of Shaktipat, Pranapat, and Samadhi are rare things to be experienced which require certain prior preparation and attunement to the spiritual path. Only direct experience concludes. More studies should be done related to this to understand the role of the Yoga Master.

Keywords: Shaktipat, Samadhi, Healing transmissions

   An Epidemiological Study of Yoga and Nonyoga Performer in Chandigarh Regarding Their Cardiovascular Diseases Top

Manoj Kumar, Savita Prashar

Centre for Public Health, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Introduction: Stress is a silent killer in the modern world and has become the curse of the 21st century. It is the greatest danger to the information era and the priceless poison for human life in the universe. Yoga and meditation are the best ways to cope up with stress and play an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) nowadays.

Objectives: To determine the level of CVDs prevention among yoga performers and nonyoga performers with other environmental condition and nutrition.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried in Chandigarh. A total of 200 yoga performers and 200 nonyoga performers were included in study and a convenient sampling technique was used.

Results: It has been observed that 4.76% of yoga performers and 7.14% of nonyoga performers have mild symptoms of CVD. After control of confounding factor, it was found that yoga and meditation are associated with the prevention of CVDs. Of the different risk factors associated with the prevention of CVD, yoga is one of the important factors in this study.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that yoga and meditation play an important role in the prevention of CVDs with controlled diet and other environmental conditions such as air quality and noise.

Keywords: Stress, prevention, meditation

   Immediate Effect of Nadi Shodhana Pranayama on Blood Glucose, Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Top

Manoranjan Tripathy

E-mail: [email protected]

Aim and Objectives: The present study aimed at comparing the immediate effect of Nadishodhana Pranayama practice on blood glucose level, heart rate, and blood pressure.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on male yogic practitioners from Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar, who gave consent and performed Nadishodhana Pranayama correctly were included in the study (N = 25, mean and standard deviation of age, respectively, 20 ± 2 as the scores were normally distributed). The data were collected on the subjects on selected physiological variables before and after the immediate practice of Nadishodhana Pranayama. The blood glucose level, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured by glucometer, heart rate monitor, and sphygmomanometer.

Results: A paired t-test was employed as a statistical analysis to compare the mean at 5% level of significance. Finally, a significant difference was shown in blood glucose level from 89.40 ± 2.30 to 74.80 ± 3.10, and heart rate was significantly decreased from 69.70 ± 5.47 to 66.40 ± 6.43. A significant difference was found in systolic blood pressure (from 128 ± 3.15 to 122 ± 3.28) during Nadishodhana Pranayama where diastolic blood pressure was significantly decreased after Nadishodhana Pranayama (from 84 ± 3.45 to 82 ± 3.34).

Conclusion: Nadishodhana Pranayama could reduce the blood glucose level, heart rate, and blood pressure by activating the parasympathetic nervous system, which enhance the healthy cardiovascular functioning of the body control high blood glucose by stimulating the insulin secretion from the pancreas.

Keywords: Blood glucose level, blood pressure, heart rate, Nadishodhana Pranayama

   To Evaluate the Effect of Rajyoga Meditation on Cognitive Correlates in Patients Undergoing Surgical Repair for Congenital Heart Disease Top

Noopur Kejriwal

Research Fellow, Cardiac-Anesthesia, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of Rajyoga meditation on cognitive correlates in patients undergoing Surgical Repair for congenital heart disease (CHD).

Methods: Patients of CHD between 8 and 18 years undergoing cardiac surgery at cardiothoracic center, AIIMS, New Delhi, are included in this study. They were randomly allocated to two groups. Group A received conventional counseling as per the institutional protocol. Group B is taken up for specialized Rajyoga meditation training by a trained Rajyoga teacher from Rajyoga Education and Research Foundation of Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University. Three training sessions were given during the perioperative period. Cognitive parameters for stress and pain are assessed at baseline, immediately after training program, and after 1 and 3 months by blinded researchers. Posthospitalization behavior questionnaire for child's behavior is administered before and after completion of Rajyoga meditation and evaluated.

Results: More than 95% of the patients who underwent all sessions of Rajyoga meditation showed reduced anxiety and apprehension in the preoperative period and happily accepted to undergo surgery. As compared to control group patients, the restlessness factor decreased with increased attentiveness and calm state of mind during surgery and postoperative treatment in the Rajyoga group patients. Rajyoga meditation group children and adolescents were less irritable in the postoperative period and showed more smiles on their face and continued doing meditation even after surgery.

Conclusions: Rajyoga meditation is found to be very effective tool for cognitive improvement and behavior management of grown-up children and adolescents who undergo cardiac surgeries.

Keywords: Congenital Heart Disease(CHD), Rajyoga meditation, cognitive improvement

   The Correlation Between Kundalini Meditation and Heart Rate: A Study on Practices of a Yoga Student Top

Naveen Kumar, Paran Gowda1

Ph.D Research Scholar, University of Patanjali, 1Professor, University of Patanjali, Haridwar, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: To study the effect of Kundalini meditation on heart rate.

Methods: An empirical model is developed for visual breathing rates and is correlated with the experimental secondary data. The subject is a male aged 25 years, University of Patanjali Scholar with 7 years of Kundalini experience. We used secondary experimental data of bipolar EEG and blood volume pulse.

Results: Alpha EEG activity during meditation (M = 1.71 μV) when compared to the prebaselines (M = 0.47 μV) and postbaselines (M = 0.78 μV), and more theta EEG activity following the meditation (M = 0.62 μV) when compared to the pre baseline and meditation (each with M = 0.51 μV). The subject reported that, when instructed to do so, the participant quickly entered a meditative state and reduction in heart rate. Mean of heart rate premeditation is 90.78 (91.20) and postmeditation is 78.37 (79.20). The results were found to be significant with 10%–15% error. Visual analyses of the data showed a decrease in respiration rate during the meditation from a mean of 10 breaths/min for the prebaseline and 13 breaths/min for the postbaseline to a mean of 4 breaths/min.

Conclusion: This study explores the empirical correlation of a highly practiced Kundalini meditation student in the Patanjali University. The subject reported that, when instructed to do so, participant quickly entered a meditative state and observed reduction in heart rate. There is a need for further research in testing the model for wider replication of the study findings.

Keywords: Kundalini meditation, heart rate, correlation

   Meditation Reduces Psychological Stress Top

Nikhil Manoharan, Rutvik J. Raval, Mrugesh Trivedi, Ramtej J. Verma

Department of Zoology, School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, 1Department of Earth and Environmental Science, KSKV Kachchh University, Bhuj, Gujarat, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: The present investigation was an attempt to evaluate the effect of Samarpan Meditation.

Methods: After obtaining consent from the total of 146 participants, the pro forma of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale which contains 42 questions was filled from both meditators (n = 73) and nonmeditators (n = 73). Inclusion criteria for meditators were practicing meditation for at least 6 months with more than 80% presence on meditation center and healthy. However, nonmeditators were age- and sex-matched healthy population, who have not applied intervention like meditation in their life yet. The ratio of age- and sex-matched participants of both the groups was 1:1.

Results: The depression, anxiety, and stress in nonmeditators were comparatively higher which can be the cause of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Samarpan Meditation significantly reduces stress, anxiety, and depression.

Conclusion: Samarpan Meditation is very helpful to improve the stress condition in participants and can be used as an alternative and complementary medicine.

Keywords: Depression, anxiety, cardiovascular diseases

   Can Yoga Therapy Influence Circadian Clock Causing Decline in Morbidity and Mortality Top

Ram B. Singh, N. S. Verma1, Anuj Maheswari1

The Tsim Tsoum Institute, Krakow, Poland, 1KG Medical University and BBD University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. E-mail: [email protected]

There is evidence that emotional health, which appears to be under the influence of spiritual health, can have a definite impact on social and physical health. The world has forgotten how to breath although, breathing appears to have definite influence on autonomic dysfunction including circadian clock functions. Recently, Li et al. presented follow-up data from 74,534 participants that resulted in 13,537 deaths. There is an inverse association of attendance at religious services and adverse health outcomes, which may be due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and other chronic diseases that are under the influence of poor mental health and with circadian dysfunction. The results revealed that hazard ratio for CVD mortality was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62–0.85; P < 0.001) and for cancer mortality was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70–0.89; P < 0.001) on comparing females attending religious services more than once per week with those who never attended. Results indicated that chronobiological risk factors; depressive symptoms, smoking, social support, and optimism were potentially important mediators, e.g., social support accounted for 23% of the effect (P = 0.003), depressive symptoms for 11% (P < 0.001], smoking for 22% (P < 0.001), and optimism for 9% (P < 0.001). Unfortunately, environmental confounders, such as circadian sleep, time of eating, circadian energy restriction, which are known to influence psychophysiological functions and metabolism as well as blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), have not been considered. Our study involved 209 subjects (142 men and 67 women) aged 42.4 ± 18.0 years. Of particular importance was the effect of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and legumes (FVL) on the MESOR of HR (r = −0.192, P = 0.011). The circadian double amplitude of HR was found to be higher among Hindus who prayed (11.7 beats/min) as compared to Hindus who did not pray (8.1 beats/min) (Student's t test = 2.137, P = 0.035). The finding indicated that prayer can increase HR variability which is a protective factor against morbidity and mortality due to CVDs and possibly cancer. This is an important mechanism that may be related to beneficial effects of attending religious services in terms of CVD risk in Li et al.'s study. The regular practice of spiritual activities can improve autonomic functions, resulting in decreased sympathetic activity with an increase in parasympathetic activity and possibly organization ability of circadian clock. A case–control study among 505 subjects with AMI, Singh et al., World Heart J, 2017, showed that yoga therapy was inversely associated with AMI. An epidemiological study among 2002 subjects aged >25 years, yoga therapy was inversely associated with risk of CAD. In an earlier study, Bernardi et al. reported that verbalization of the Sanskrit words “Om mani padme” may provide beneficial effects (increase in vagal activity), by reducing breath in rate <10/min, that stem from the altered breathing pattern rather than from particular words. It is possible that yoga therapy(yogasan, meditation, and prayer) can protect against CVDs and other chronic diseases by improving circadian clock function.

Keywords: emotional health, spiritual health, cardiovascular diseases

   Relationship Between Effect on Heart Rate Variability Parameters and Happiness Level During Heartfulness Meditation Processes Top

Rahul Mehrotra

Director & Head, Non-Invasive Cardiology, Max Superspecialty Hospital, Saket, New Delhi, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: To study the correlation among heart rate variability (HRV) parameters during heartfulness cleaning and meditation processes.

Methods: Thirty participants (9 females, 21 males) in the age range of 19–70 years (mean = 45.1 years, standard deviation = 12.7 years) with experience of practicing heartfulness were included. All participants were subjected to continuous Holter monitoring during heartfulness cleaning and meditation (30 min each). HRV parameters; normalized unit (nu) of power in low-frequency band (LFnu), nu of power in high-frequency band (HFnu), and their ratio (LF/HF) were recorded. Smart-track Holter analyzer Software (DYAUSMED Healthcare, India) was used to analyze the HRV data obtained and SPSS version 16 was used for statistical analysis.

Results: The change in values of LFnu, HFnu, and LF/HF during cleaning and meditation with respect to baseline values was computed, and correlation among them studied using Pearson's correlation method. Changes in LFnu and LF/HF ratio during cleaning were found to be correlated significantly with the changes in LFnu and LF/HF ratio during meditation, while a significant negative correlation was observed with change in HFnu during cleaning and change in HFnu during meditation. Changes in LFnu, HFnu, and LF/HF ratio during cleaning and meditation were all found to be significantly correlated with one another except correlation between change in HFnu during cleaning and change in LFnu during meditation which was not correlated significantly (the level of significance at 0.05).

Conclusion: Changes in HRV parameters LFnu, HFnu, and LF/HF during heartfulness cleaning and meditation were found to be significantly correlated with one another in most cases.

Keywords: heartfulness, meditation, correlated

   Raagas in Indian Classical Music for Reducing Stress, Anxiety, and Depression as Prescription for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases Top

K. P. Kochhar, Tamoghna Ghosh, Sonali Mohan1, Govind Saraswati1

Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 1CAREiMUCT, Centre for Advanced Research in Indian Music Therapy, Dwarka, New Delhi, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: To review raagas in the Indian classical music as a prescription for cardiovascular diseases.

Methods: A literature search was done to find raagas having mention of effectiveness in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Results: A literature survey and review showed the mention of raaga Ahir Bhairav, Todi, and Darbari as a prescription for patients suffering from hypertension. Raaga Malkauns helps cure low blood pressure. Carnatic raagas such as Punnagavarali and Sahana are useful to calm the mind and control anger.

Conclusions: Music and meditation are inseparable. There can be no music without meditation, and music is an important part of meditation. Indian classical raagas have a definitive effect on our mind and body because of the specific frequencies of the musical notes and their repetitive occurrence. Listening to or practicing Indian classical raagas can help in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases by effectively reducing stress, anxiety, and depression. Music therapy is a promising alternate therapy in preventive health care for all people of all ages, and socioeconomic and cultural diversities, irrespective of their sex. A pilot study for scientifically proving the effect of the musical notes and raagas on our brain is proposed to be conducted at the Department of Physiology, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.

Keywords: Indian classical music, meditation, Music therapy

   Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure Among Prehypertensive and Hypertensive Individuals: A Systematic Review Top

Raksha Yadav, Garima, Rakesh Sharma, Prasuna Jelly, Harjot Kaur Dhami

M.Sc. Nursing Students, College of Nursing, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Introduction: As per the WHO reports, about 17.9 million deaths occurred in 2016 due to cardiovascular diseases, representing near one-third of all global deaths and hypertension being one important cause of that. Hence, this review was aimed at systematically assessing the effects of various forms of yoga on prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals from the randomized controlled trials.

Methodology: Electronic databases were screened through by authors independently in February 2019 to include six studies. The inclusion criteria for interventions were (a) randomized control trial, (b) indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane library, IndMED, Scopus, Google Scholar, (c) published between January 2013 to December 2018, and (d) RCTs on prehypertensive and hypertensive patients.

Results: A total of 424 participants were enrolled in the selected six studies, 242 in the experimental group and the remaining 182 being the controls. A total of 155 (36.56%) of the participants were lost to follow-up. The study findings revealed a significant reduction in the systolic blood pressure in all the RCTs except one. Findings also revealed that yoga helped in normalization of both systolic and diastolic hypertension.

Discussion: This meta-analysis showed the clinically considerable effects of yoga on hypertension among prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. The findings showed yoga can be an effective modality to reduce blood pressure in such patients as found by various other studies and reviews as well. Yoga can be used among patients who are with risk of hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders.

Keywords: Blood pressure, cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, prehypertension, systematic review, yoga

   A Study to Assess the Patient's Perception of Stressors Associated With Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in a Selected Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab Top

Nidhi Kumar, Sarju Ralhan1

College of Nursing and 1Assistant Professor, DMC and H, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a physical and psychological stress and the procedure is a life-threatening incident for patients. Patients concerns about CABG are known as stressors which interfere with nursing care and can prolong the recovery process. Stress among patients is due to various reasons such as fear of death, anxiety, away from home and job, and financial stress. Nurses must accurately assess the patient's stress level and help them to deal with it which helps in early recovery.

Objectives: The study was conducted with a objective to assess the patient's perception of stressors associated with CABG with a view to develop and disseminate booklet on CABG awareness program.

Methodology: A descriptive study was conducted in May 2018 on 60 postoperative CABG patients in selected areas of HDHI, Ludhiana, Punjab. Purposive sampling technique was used for sample selection. Modified revised cardiac surgery stressor scale developed by White (1988) was used to assess the patients perception of stressors associated with CABG. Data were collected using interview and observation method.

Results: The study findings revealed that majority (60%) of patients had moderate degree of perceived stressors associated with CABG. Of 37 perceived stressors grouped under perceived intrapersonal, interpersonal, and extrapersonal, “Being away from home or business” (mean% = 43.33%) was the most common perceived stressor while “being restrained “(mean% = 5%) was the least perceived stressor. Working status (P = 0.038), socioeconomic status (P = 0.029), dietary habits (P = 0.038), duration of intensive care unit stay (P = 0.0036), and presence of pain (P = 0.010) had significant association with patient's perception of stressors associated with CABG.

Conclusion: The findings of the study concluded that majority (60%) of patients had moderate degree of perceived stressors and extrapersonal stressor accounted as the most commonly perceived stressor associated with CABG.

Keywords: Coronary artery bypass grafting, perception, stressors

   Differences in Cognitive Function and Emotional Processing among Yoga Practitioners, Physically Active Individuals, and Sedentary Lifestyle Individuals: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study Top

Harsimarpreet Kaur, Senthil Kumaran, Gautam Sharma

Department of NMR, Centre for Integrative Medicine and Research, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: There has been a debate about whether yoga is more than just physical exercises. Due to this debate, the effects of physical exercises and yoga have also been compared by many researchers across the world. The primary objective of the current study was to study the neurocognitive correlates of emotion and cognition among people who practice yoga or physical exercises and those leading a sedentary lifestyle.

Methods: After obtaining institute ethical clearance, 39 participants (13 – yoga practitioners [YPs], 13 – physically active printarticle.asp?issn=0973-6131;year=2019;volume=12;issue=4;spage=1;epage=28;aulast=, and 13 – sedentary lifestyle [SL]) underwent an functional magnetic resonance imaging which included working memory and response inhibition tasks. The participants were from 18 to 35 years of age with education for more than 15 years. Image processing and analysis were carried out using SPM 12.

Results: The BOLD processing revealed significant differences in brain activity among YP as compared to PA and SL individuals during the response inhibition task. During the cognitive tasks, there were no significant differences in brain activity among YP as compared to the PA and SL individuals.

Conclusions: The present study included a well-controlled, matched sample of YP, PA, and SL individuals and a neuroimaging paradigm that allows for modeling of the interactive effects of emotion on cognition – an area of research currently underrepresented in the literature from India. Higher prefrontal cortex and cingulate gyrus activity in the YP supports that yoga affects the self-regulatory pathways, integrating existing constructs from cognitive behavior theory and cognitive neuroscience with emerging yoga and meditation research.

Keywords: brain activity, cognitive neuroscience, yoga and meditation

   A Collaborative Diagonistic Approach to Study the Effect of Meditation on Cardiovascular Diseases Top

Ritu Singh

E-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: Primary causes of cardiovascular diseases include sedentary lifestyle and stress. In circulatory system, heart is integrated with other body systems and also affected by them (e.g., nervous system, endocrine system). Using a collaborative approach, the integrative behavior of electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) could be obtained to diagnose the effect of meditation on cardiovascular diseases.

Methods: There are various methods to track the brain activity (e.g., EEG, fMRI) and heart activity (e. g. ECG, heart rate variability [HRV]). The comparison for meditative and nonmeditative subjects showed that the lower frequencies are more dominant for meditating subjects. The study also shows that the results of HRV during meditation subject is remarkably different than others.

Results: Using EEG and HRV, it is found that the EEG wave frequency during meditation is lower than the frequency during normal activity. Moreover, HRV for meditation is more than that of during nonmeditative states. The correspondence between EEG pattern and HRV for normal and diseased person can leads to analyze the effect of meditation on cardiovascular diseases, i.e., low-frequency EEG wave and larger value of HRV have higher correlation for meditative practices.

Conclusions: Both brain activity and heart activity are highly correlated, and meditation connects both of the elements. Meditation causes low-frequency EEG signal which signals hypothalamus to activate parasympathetic nervous system which in turn make the body calm and reduces the blood pressure. Moreover, HRV increases due to which possibility of occurrence of heart-related diseases decreases.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseases, meditation, meditative practices

   Effect of Pranayama and Meditation on Mental Health of Diabetic Patients Top

Rounak Munshi

E-mail: [email protected]

The pranayama and meditation calms and focuses the mind to develop greater awareness and diminish anxiety. Other beneficial effects involve a reduction of distress; blood pressure; and improvements in resilience, mood, and metabolic regulation. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of pranayama and meditation on mental health of diabetic patients and to explore the effect of pranayama and meditation on quality of life of diabetic patients. A total of 30 diabetic patients (15 males and 15 females) were taken as sample from the Outpatient/Inpatient Department of Rajkiya Ayurvedic Hospital, Gurukul Kangri, Haridwar, Uttarakhand. The samples were collected in an unbiased manner, and the formulation was done by applying t-test. The results showed tremendous effect on the mental health of diabetic patients; more than 80% of the patients showed improvement and experienced mental peace. The results also showed that the longer a person meditated more mental peace he acquired. The study concluded that meditation is not only the key to the mental health of the diabetic but also helps in stabilizing the levels of insulin in the body.

Keywords: Diabetics, insulin, meditation, mental health, pranayama

   Effect of Samarpan Meditation on Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Gujarat Home Guards Top

Rutvik J. Raval, Nikhil Manoharan, Hasamukh Shah1, Ramtej J. Verma

Department of Zoology, School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, 1Department of Physiology, Pramukhswami Hospital, Anand, Gujarat, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: To study the effect of Samarpan Meditation on depression, anxiety, and stress in Gujarat Home Guards.

Methods: After taking written consent, a total of 74 healthy participants were enrolled in the study. All participants were male with age ranged between 18 and 50 years. The study was time-dependent. A pro forma of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale which contains 42 questions was filled four times on an interval of 1 month.

Results: The results revealed a significant improvement in depression, anxiety, and stress in approximately all participants.

Conclusion: Samarpan Meditation is very effective to improve depression, anxiety, and stress in participants and can be used as an alternative and complementary medicine.

Keywords: Samarpan Meditation, depression, anxiety, stress

   Effects of Integrated Yoga and Naturopathy Treatment on Stress, Anxiety and Depression in Women Top

S Gowtham

E-mail: [email protected]

Aim: In recent decades, several medical and scientific studies on yoga and naturopathy treatments proved it to be very useful in the treatment of many diseases in a separate manner. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of integrated yoga and naturopathy treatment on depression, anxiety, and stress in women living in India.

Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study with pre-post-test. To collect data, the questionnaire of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-42 was used. For eligible samples from Government Yoga and Naturopathy Medical College and Hospital, Chennai 106, integrated yoga practices with a raw diet, acupuncture and naturopathy treatment, and training sessions were held for 1 h in the morning and evening for 15 days by the doctors. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.

Results: Fifty women with a mean age of 33.5 ± 6.5 years were included for analysis. Depression, anxiety, and stress decreased significantly in women after 15 sessions of regular hatha yoga practice (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Integrated yoga and naturopathic treatment has an effective role in reducing stress, anxiety, and depression in women and increased the confidence level. Thus, it can be used as complementary medicine.

Keywords: Anxiety, depression, stress, naturopathy, women, yoga

   Kundalini Yogic Meditation Enhances Oxytocin, a Hormone That Promotes Cardiac Health Top

S. Malathy1,2, M. Parameswaran1,2, Ashish Jaiswal1,2, Ulaganathan Mabalirajan1,2

1Department of Yoga for Human Excellence, Bharathiyar University, 2The World Community Service Center, Aliyar, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Background: In this modern era, every individual is facing numerous amount of physical and mental stress to cope up the competition and fast forward life. Chronic stress is one of the main reasons for damaging cardiac homeostasis. In stressful situation, our body secretes oxytocin, a neuropeptide that supports as “Tend and Befriend” against “Fight or Flight” response. Oxytocin not only released during physical contact, lactation, or uterine contraction but also stimulated atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) which is a cardioprotective agent and regenerated the damaged heart.

Objective: In this study, we wanted to find out the effect of Kundalini yoga meditation on the levels of oxytocin hormone.

Methods: The Kundalini Yoga was simplified by Yogiraj Vethathiri Maharishi, and it offers holistic approach by providing meditation for psychological health, physical exercise for physiological health, and introspection practices for psychosocial health. To understand the same, this study was carried out in voluntary subjects in Delhi who have normal household and official stress and we measured oxytocin levels in sera of these participants before and after practicing yoga.

Results: We have conducted the paired “t-” test in the sera samples which were collected before and after Kundalini yoga practice. The analysis revealed that oxytocin was increased after the 3 months of Kundalini yoga practice.

Conclusions: By practicing Kundalini yoga with meditation slows the heart rate and regulates the blood pressure. Several studies state that oxytocin stimulates ANP and maintains balance between nitric oxide and oxidative stress to protect our cardiovascular system.

Keywords: Kundalini, psychological health, Physical exercise

   Effect of “Om” Chanting in Addition With Conventional Pharmacotherapy in Mild-To-Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder Patients: A Prospective Study Top

Shambo Samrat Samajdar , Ritabrata Mitra1, Shatavisa Mukherjee, Anushka Ghosh, Saibal Moitra2, Santanu Kumar Tripathi

Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, School of Tropical Medicine, 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, IPGME and R, SSKM, 2Allergy and Asthma Treatment Centre, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Background: Yoga is an ancient Indian science as well as the way of life, which includes practice of specific posture and regulated breathing. Breath is the dynamic bridge between body and mind, and Pranayama (breathing techniques) is one of the most important yogic practices, which can produce different physiological responses in healthy individuals. Among various Pranayamas in yogic practices, OM chanting was used as expiratory exercises for bronchial asthma. Combination of A, U (O), and M, i.e., OM, is one of the fundamental symbols used in the yoga tradition, which symbolizes the three states of consciousness, i.e., waking state, dream state, and deep sleep, respectively. The present study probed the effect of OM chanting in improving pulmonary functions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders (COPDs).

Methodology: This prospective study included 30 COPD patients who were randomly allocated to two different study arms – one receiving the conventional pharmacotherapy for COPD and the other group was subjected to protocolized OM chanting as an add on to the conventional pharmacotherapy. Both the groups were assessed for pulse rate and SpO2 and then subjected to 6-min walk test (6MWT) and assessed for FEV1 (postbronchodilation), SpO2, and pulse rate at both baseline and at the end of 3 months. Anxiety was evaluated using state trait anxiety inventory at both specified intervals. Results were statistically analyzed.

Results: Nonsignificant increase in FEV1% and decrease in pulse rate changes was noted post-6MWT in OM chanting group. No changes in SpO2 and 6-min walk distance were noted in either group. Significant decrease in anxiety scores in both state anxiety and trait anxiety domains were noted for those in OM chanting group.

Conclusion: OM chanting in addition to conventional pharmacotherapy may be effective in improving the pulmonary function in COPD patients. However, the effect may be more prominent on prolonged intervention, which mandates further research.

Keywords: pranayama, OM chanting, dream state

   Effect of Yoga and Meditation in Reducing The Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Comparative Study Top

T. S. Sujithra, N. Mangayarkarasi1

MD Scholar and 1Professor Govt Yoga and Naturopathy Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: The objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of yoga, meditation, and naturopathy on some biochemical indicators to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases in type II diabetes mellitus (DM) patients.

Design: This was a three-arm comparative study.

Materials and Methods: The study is based on data collected on screened 60 interested type II diabetes patients on both gender, age between 30 and 75years.The subjects are heterogeneous group of patients with DM, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and a variety of other illness. The study consists of three arms (20 patients in each group). The first group is given yoga and meditation for about 1 h regularly for 10 days. The second group is under naturopathic intervention (including natural diet) for 10 days. The third group is control group. The outcome measures are fast blood sugar (FBS), serum lipoprotein profile (triglycerides, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein [LDL], very LDL [VLDL], high-density lipoprotein [HDL], and ratio of total cholesterol and HDL).The variables are determined in fasting blood samples taken on the first and last day of the study.

Results: Compared to the three groups, the mean values of FBS, total triglycerides, serum cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, and ratio of total cholesterol and HDL are significantly lower and HDL is significantly higher in yoga group (P < 0.05) on the post analysis.

Conclusion: The observation suggests that yoga and meditation reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases in diabetes patient comparing the other natural therapies.

Keywords: Yoga, meditation, Naturopathy, cholesterol

   Reduce Mental Frequency Rate Through Meditation on Cardiovascular Diseases Top

S. Prasath, R. Dhanalakshmi1

Director of Physical Education, Government Arts College, Paramakudi, 1Yoga for Human Excellence Ph.D Research Scholar, WCSC – VISION SKY RESEARCH CENTRE, (Approved Research Centre of Bharathiar University), Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Today cardiovascular problems are major issue in worldwide. This problem increases the death rate. However, with advanced treatment and medicine, it is now in right way to preserve the human life. We need to take long life preservation and maintain the natural capacity of our heart.

Objectives: The objective is to aware of meditation in the prevention and treatment of every lifestyle diseases, especially in cardiovascular problems, and to discuss how our findings can be used to guide the fitness of heart.

Methods: Reduce mental frequency is one of the methods to improve and prevent cardiovascular problems. It is an easy method.

“The mind is like a flawless crystal ball, radiant and clear.

The mind is like the sun, brilliant and powerful by nature.

The mind is like space, vast and indestructible.

So, our mind is already totally powerful.”


Everyone can train yourself easily and quickly to recognize and utilize this power of your mind to be of benefit to all. The tendency of the mind to want to control is so strong and so habitual that we often observation of our breath in every movement of our activity. The mind is the collection of biomagnetic wave which has the self-transforming capability and which has a whirling speed. The speed or the mental frequency can be measured as cycles per second. Encephalograph is an apparatus that records in the form of drawing the electrical activity of the brain, which is called encephalogram (EEG). The scientists using EEG have discovered that mental frequency level is from 1 to 40 cycles per second; 1 is the minimum and 40 is the maximum. The psychologists describe the frequency at four levels.

Results: Concentric observation of our breath in various simple movement and day-to-day activities leads to balance the parasympathetic nervous system and then slow or rhyme contraction of the heart. It will strengthen our heart. Hence, it will help to reduce cardiovascular problems.

Conclusions: Majority of people is not aware of his/her meditation for everyone for fitness, irrespective of age to make fitness nation. It is achieved through plan meditation (activity) programs at the beginning of school age to every step of age up to old age. Meditation mainly controls the cardiovascular problems. Our long-term vision is for cardiovascular fitness care providers to routinely assess meditation as a “vital sign” at every age group, provide brief advice, and refer patients to evidence-based fitness resources.

Keywords: lifestyle diseases, cardiovascular problems, meditation


  1. Benson R, Connoly D. Heart Rate Training; 2011. p. 10, 30.
  2. Bloomfield RJ. Naturopathy. In: Bannerman RH, John, editors. 1983. p. 116-23.
  3. Burton WC, editor. Traditional Medicine and Health Care Coverage. Geneva: World Health Organization.

   Study on the Coping of Stress Among Yoga Performers and Nonyoga Performers in Tricity Top

Sanjeev Datta, Jyoti, N. K. Goel1, Veenal Chadha2

MPH Scholar, Punjab University, 1Prof and Head, Department of Community Medicine, GMCH, 2Demonstrator, Department of Community Medicine, GMCH, Chandigarh, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: To study the coping of stress among yoga performers and nonyoga performers in tricity, i.e., Chandigarh, Panchkula, and Mohali.

Methods: A community-based comparative study was done among the residents of tricity using predesigned and pretested quotations of stress and coding strategies. Sample size included 84 yoga performers and 84 nonyoga performers with a convenient sampling technique. The study was carried from January 2018 to May 2018.

Results: A total of 168 completely filled questionnaires were received. Of 84 yoga performers, 27 were males while 57 were females, and in case of nonyoga performers, 37 were males while 47 were females. However, difference of coping score among yoga and nonyoga performer was not found statistically significant.

Discussion and Conclusion: This study was conducted with an objective to determine the coping of stress using coping inventory tool developed by Charles S. Carver. The reason of not finding any significance of yoga in our study might be small sample size and/or short duration of study. It is, therefore, recommended that the study may be enlarged by involving more performers of yoga and by carrying out study at least for 1 year.

Keywords: stress, Yoga, community

   Integrative Meditation and Counseling Intervention on Cardiovascular Disease Patients for Quality of Life: A Systematic Review Top

Sapna Paliwal, Rita Kumar1, Abha Singh2

Research Scholar, AIPS, Amity University, 1Guide, Professor, AIPS, Amity University, Noida, (U.P), 2Ex Director, AIPS, Amity University, Noida, (U.P), India. E-mail: [email protected]

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered a leading cause of death and significant psychological distress. Research evidence has shown that psychological integrative meditation and counseling intervention may improve the quality of life of CVD patients. This article reviews the effectiveness of the integrative meditation and counseling intervention on quality of life for people with CVD.

Methods: We have searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Central, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science direct, from 2009 to 2019. Inclusion criteria: (1) investigated quality of life outcome on CVD patients; (2) meditation and counseling intervention on CVD population.

Results: Sixty-five studies that met inclusion criteria included quasi-experimental design (13), systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trial (15), pretest and posttest pilot study (7), and randomized controlled trial (30). Finding of the 65 studies indicated that meditation, mindfulness, yoga integrative approach has positive effect on the quality life of CVD patients.

Conclusion: This systematic review paper indicates the integrative meditation and counseling intervention has enhanced the quality of life in CVD patients, indicating the scope of integrative meditation and counseling intervention as a predictor of quality of life in the medical and nonmedical population.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Integrative meditation, counseling intervention

   Science Behind the Meditation: The Most Effective Yoga Methods For Cardiovascular Diseases Top

C. Sathishkumar

Asistant Professor, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International School of Textile and Management, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Introduction: Yoga is a holistic mind–body intervention envisioned by physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual bliss. Numerous studies have revealed that yoga and meditation can regulate risk issues for cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, type II diabetes and insulin resistance, obesity, lipid profile, psychosocial stress, and smoking.

Objective: Transcendental meditation along with the most effective yoga postures (Asanas) was extremely useful in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and it reduces cardiovascular events by 48% over a 5-year period.

Methods: However, the most treatment methods have several boundaries such as lack of passable controls, minor sample size, discrepancies in baseline, and different methodologies, and so, large trials with better-quality methodologies are required to settle these findings. Hence, we have adopted the most effective yoga postures (Asanas) along with transcendental meditation. These methods were scientifically endorsed and accepted yoga module for cardiac patients. Yoga postures was trained three sessions per week among 20 trials with hypertension, yoga interventions that comprised breathing practices and meditation/mental relaxation prompted BP reductions of 12/6 to 6/3 mmHg. A clinical trial based on this module is in progress not completed (preliminary level).

Results: Using this yoga module, i.e., transcendental meditation along with the most effective yoga postures (Asanas), reduces cardiovascular events such as abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, heart valve disease, and infections by 48% over a period with 15 number of people. A clinical trial based on this module is in progress. It also really beneficial in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and it the BP reduction. Highly noteworthy suggestion was perceived between awareness concerning lifestyle alterations such as yoga and meditation and sex, socioeconomic position, education, and zone (urban nonslum/urban slum/rural). Results recommend that yoga might have valuable effects on cognitive functioning, predominantly on attention and verbal memory. In addition, yoga may touch cognitive functioning through improved sleep, temperament, and neural connectivity.

Conclusions: Based on the results, recommendations can be made for the supplementary usage of yoga for patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, and cardiac dysrhythmia at this point. The outcomes specify that yoga is a worthwhile antihypertensive lifestyle therapy that harvests the utmost BP benefits when breathing practices and meditation/mental lessening are reduced. Consider recommending yoga as a safe and possibly valuable balancing health, certain randomized studies suggest that yoga/meditation could delay or even retreat early and advanced coronary atherosclerosis. Yoga being a cost-effective method deprived of side effects, it seems suitable to integrate yoga/meditation for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The gap in mindfulness provoked in our study needs to be addressed.

Keywords: hypertension, type II diabetes, Transcendental meditation

   Mobile Radiation Effect in Heart Rate Variability and Its Yogic Management Top

Saumya Gangwar, Sonu Sharma, Narendra Singh, Sanu Priya Rai, Roopa Sharma, Pooja Devi, Ayushi Singh

E-mail: [email protected]

In this modern era, there is a rapid increase in the use of mobile phones; everyone knows that mobile phones emit electromagnetic radiation which is very harmful and it badly effects the heart of the human being and wildlife. First, mobile phone is developed in the 1940s and then it developed continuously. From the 2000s, android phones are available in the market. From 2013 to 2019, the number of mobile phone users in India is expected to rise 730.7 million, and the number of smartphone users is predicted to reach 340 million and could reach almost 468 million by 2021. It is the highest estimated growth rate posted by any country in the world. The number of mobile phone users in the order of the age is as follows: 25–34 > 18–24 > 35–54 > 55+ years. The mobile phone radiation effects the heart rate variability and increases the chances of cardiovascular disease. In this modern era, the use of mobile phone cannot be completely neglected, but its use can be decreased or its effect should be reduced by applying some yogic practices (asana and pranayama), cleansing process, and meditation and proper diet. We will get a better result by yogic practises which is beneficial in increasing heart rate variability. This should be proved that yogic practice and yogic lifestyle will prevent or manage many cardiovascular problems.

Keywords: Cleansing process, electromagnetic radiation, heart disease, heart rate variability, meditation, mobile phones, proper diet, smartphone, yogic practice

   Effect of Meditation on Cognitive Functions and Heart Rate Among School Students Top

Seulgi Lee, Paran Gowda1

Ph.D. Research Scholar, 1Professor, University of Patanjali, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: (1) To find the possible relation between meditation and cognitive functions. (2) To find the effect of meditation practices on heart rate.

Methods: A total of 60 healthy female students in the age range of 18–28 years are considered for the study. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 21. The data were checked for normality, and independent sample t-test was employed to compare the means of both the groups.

Results: It was found that the meditation practices help in the reduction of stress which improves heart rate variability and compared to a stable baseline heart rate. Thirty yoga female (raw score 38.56 ± 3.26; standard mean ± standard deviation 104.03 ± 11.24) and thirty nonyoga female (score 32.76 ± 3.96; standard 86.46 ± 16.70). The baseline heart rate is 100.8 ± 13.0 and the postheart rate is 98.3 ± 15.8 after yoga. For all analysis, we found 95% confidence intervals and considered P < 0.05 as statistically significant. The results suggest that meditation practices help in improving visual perception processing speed for correct stimulitask immediate attention with lowered attention time.

Conclusion: In the present study, we compared the long-term effect of meditation on students of yoga practitioners (>1 year experience) performance in motor free visual perception test with control group (who never exposed to meditation before). The results suggest that meditation practice helps to improve visual perception processing speed for correct stimuli task immediate attention with lowered attention time. There is a need for further study and generalization using recent technologies such as functional near-infrared spectroscopy, electroencephalography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Keywords: Yoga, perception, meditation

   Role of Leech Therapy in Cardiovascular Diseases Top

Singh MP, Rajpoot BK1, Ansari K2, Mishra SK3

Professor and Head, Department of Shalya Tantra, Patanjali Bhartiya Ayurvigyan evam Anusandhan Sansthan, 1Assistant Professor, Department of Shalya Tantra, Patanjali Bhartiya Ayurvigyan evam Anusandhan Sansthan, 2Assistant Professor, Department of Shalya Tantra, Patanjali Bhartiya Ayurvigyan evam Anusandhan Sansthan, 3P.G.Scholar, Department of Shalya Tantra, Patanjali Bhartiya Ayurvigyan evam Anusandhan Sansthan, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Cardiovascular diseases comprise the most prevalent serious disorders in our nation. Cardiovascular diseases remain the most common causes of death, responsible for 35% of all deaths. Alert physicians may recognize the patient at risk for cardiovascular complications long before they occur and often can take measures to prevent their occurrence. One such measure is treatment using medicinal leech that is Jalaukavacharana (hirudotherapy or leech therapy). Jalaukavacharana is defined in detail in the Sushruta Samhita. Leech therapy should be regarded not only as a preventive therapy but also as a method of treatment in ischemic diseases of heart and other vascular pathologies. Leech (Hirudo medicinalis) is annelid worm that attaches to their hosts with chitinous cutting jaws and draw blood through muscular suckers. Attachment is usually painless, and the leeches will detach themselves when satisfied with blood meals. The therapeutic effect is not only by loss of blood but also by the secretions, which the leech emits into the wound. A prospective study was done on 30 patients suffering from peripheral vascular disease. Consecutive consenting male and female patients suffering from peripheral vascular diseases with moderate symptoms were randomly selected from the Outpatient Department of Shalya Tantra, Patanjali Ayurved Hospital, to receive leech therapy with regular sitting intervals of 1 week and 7 sittings with 4 leeches in one sitting. Assessment of symptoms was done after each sitting. The primary outcome was the trajectory of improvement in symptoms. Response to leech therapy was defined as 40% improvements in symptoms of PVDs. This, however, requires further evaluation by controlled trials. There is huge potential in different fields, and these could be future therapeutics.

Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases, hirudotherapy, leech therapy

   Effects of Yoga on Sexual Function in Men With Metabolic Syndrome Top

Sumalya Sen, Shatavisa Mukherjee, Sougata Sarkar

Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Introduction: Male sexual dysfunction is an important public health issue; it has a high global prevalence, but few effective and safe treatment options. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction is higher in men with metabolic syndrome than in the general population. It has been seen that chance of heart attacks decreased by two-fold in those people who had a good sex life.[1]

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of yoga as a treatment for sexual dysfunction in men with metabolic syndrome.

Methods: A randomized control study was conducted in 30 men with metabolic syndrome (age 30–50 years), who were divided into two groups, a 12-week yoga exercise group (n = 15) or a wait-listed control group (n = 15). Primary endpoints were changes in Male Sexual Quotient (MSQ) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) Questionnaire. Changes in anxiety score was evaluated using state-trait anxiety inventory. All measures were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks.

Main Outcome Measures: Primary endpoints were changes in MSQ and IIEF-5 Questionnaire.

Results: It was found that after the completion of yoga sessions, the sexual functions scores were significantly improved (P < 0.0001). The improvement occurred in scores of all the domains of sexual functions as studied by MSQ and IIEF-5 Questionnaire (desire, intercourse satisfaction, performance, confidence, partner synchronization, erection, ejaculatory control, and orgasm). Improvements in anxiety scores were significantly higher in yoga practicing group.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that yoga may be an effective treatment for sexual dysfunction in men with metabolic syndrome as well as for metabolic risk factors.

Keywords: Male sexual dysfunctions, male sexual functions, male sexual quotient, physical exercises, yoga


  1. Mobley DF, Khera M, Baum N. Recent advances in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Postgrad Med J 2017;93:679-85.

   Effect of Mudra on Stress Management Top

Sumeeta Jain, Nandakishore Thatawale, Prasad Deshpande, V. G. Patrikar

Department of Swasthavritta and Yog Government Ayurved College, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: To study the effect of Mudra on stress management with the help of Aura scanning

Methods: Thirty individuals were trained for Surya mudra daily for 10 min BD for 90 days in the study group compared with nonpracticing Mudra group. Moreover, aura was scanned.

Results: Practicing Surya Mudra reduced aura distortion of the individuals significantly. We applied Mann–Whitney test for comparison of two groups with their before and after readings. The mean and standard deviation were 4.32 ± 5.61 before and 1.38 ± 3.74 after therapy (P < 0.0291).

Discussion: Mudras also with physical exercises include balancing, concentration, and Dhyan practices. The tip of the nose, lips, fingers, and toes are responsible for the radiation of energy from the body. Practice of Mudras establishes direct link between Pancha koshas and Pranik body (Satya Saraswati). Gherand Samhita 3/90-94 says Mudras are not meant for Bhaktiheen individuals. Hence, surrender from sadhak is a basic need. If practiced sincerely, they control Hridayoplepa and Dhamanipratichya which are included in 20 Kapha Rogas mentioned in Charak Samhita Su. 20/17. The energy radiated from the body decides distortion of aura can be assessed by aura scanning. Leshya (psychic colors) mentioned in Jain Aagam (Uttaradhyana 34) is a psychic color varying according to the Karma of soul; they are six out of which three are malevolent – black, blue, and gray and three benevolent – rose, yellow, and white. Aura scanning may serve as the bridging gap between traditional knowledge and modern techniques. Gertrud Hirschi Mudras improve the mental state by reducing the anger, increasing the peace, and taking away from addiction.

Keywords: Mudra, stress management, Aura scanning

   Role of Meditation in Cardiovascular Risk Reduction and Treatment: A Review Top

Tomar Swati, Megha

Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, Ministry of AYUSH, New Delhi, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: To systematically review the effectiveness of meditation for reducing blood pressure and stress and to assess the role of meditation in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Methods: Studies of a published article on meditation effect on cardiovascular risk reduction were searched for on various search engines (e.g., Google and PubMed) using search terms including meditation, stress, blood pressure, CVD prevention. Yoga practices, although involving inner focus and a concentration on breathing, but also consist of physical practices. Regular physical activity has itself been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction,[1],[2] and thus, findings from such studies would be confounded. Therefore, this review was restricted to the practices of sitting meditation.


  • Effects of meditation on stress: Numerous studies report some improvements in levels of perceived stress, mood, anxiety, depression, quality of sleep, or overall well-being
  • Effects of meditation on blood pressure: Numerous studies have been conducted on the effects of meditation on blood pressure
  • Meditation in patients with established CVD: Limited studies are available of meditation for prevention of CVD. Such studies, which generally have enrolled patients with stable coronary artery disease, have variably reported reductions in systolic blood pressure, insulin resistance, serum lipids, clinical symptoms, and anxiety and stress.[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14]

Conclusions: Studies of meditation suggest a possible benefit of meditation on CVD risk reduction. Many studies report that meditation is associated with improved psychological and psychosocial indices and magnitude of reductions of systolic blood pressure. Further research on meditation and cardiovascular risk is warranted.

Keywords: Meditation, stress, Rajyoga


  1. Shiroma EJ, Lee IM. Physical activity and cardiovascular health: Lessons learned from epidemiological studies across age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Circulation 2010;122:743-52.
  2. Thompson PD, Buchner D, Pina IL, Balady GJ, Williams MA, Marcus BH, et al. Exercise and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: A statement from the council on clinical cardiology (Subcommittee on exercise, rehabilitation, and prevention) and the council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism (Subcommittee on physical activity). Circulation 2003;107:3109-16.
  3. Bharshankar JR, Mandape AD, Phatak MS, Bharshankar RN. Autonomic functions in Raja-yoga meditators. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2015;59:396-401.
  4. Schneider RH, Grim CE, Rainforth MV, Kotchen T, Nidich SI, Gaylord-King C, et al. Stress reduction in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: Randomized, controlled trial of transcendental meditation and health education in blacks. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2012;5:750-8.
  5. Paul-Labrador M, Polk D, Dwyer JH, Velasquez I, Nidich S, Rainforth M, et al. Effects of a randomized controlled trial of transcendental meditation on components of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:1218-24.
  6. Gupta SK, Sawhney RC, Rai L, Chavan VD, Dani S, Arora RC, et al. Regression of coronary atherosclerosis through healthy lifestyle in coronary artery disease patients – mount Abu open heart trial. Indian Heart J 2011;63:461-9.
  7. Zamarra JW, Schneider RH, Besseghini I, Robinson DK, Salerno JW. Usefulness of the transcendental meditation program in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1996;77:867-70.
  8. DuBroff R, Lad V, Murray-Krezan C. A prospective trial of ayurveda for coronary heart disease: A pilot study. Altern Ther Health Med 2015;21:52-62.
  9. Parswani MJ, Sharma MP, Iyengar S. Mindfulness-based stress reduction program in coronary heart disease: A randomized control trial. Int J Yoga 2013;6:111-7.
  10. Nehra DK, Sharma NR, Kumar P, Nehra S. Efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program in reducing perceived stress and health complaints in patients with coronary heart disease. Dysphrenia 2014;5:19-25.
  11. Delui MH, Yari M, Khouyinezhad G, Amini M, Bayazi MH. Comparison of cardiac rehabilitation programs combined with relaxation and meditation techniques on reduction of depression and anxiety of cardiovascular patients. Open Cardiovasc Med J 2013;7:99-103.
  12. Tacón AM, McComb J, Caldera Y, Randolph P. Mindfulness meditation, anxiety reduction, and heart disease: A pilot study. Fam Community Health 2003;26:25-33.
  13. Robert McComb JJ, Tacon A, Randolph P, Caldera Y. A pilot study to examine the effects of a mindfulness-based stress-reduction and relaxation program on levels of stress hormones, physical functioning, and submaximal exercise responses. J Altern Complement Med 2004;10:819-27.
  14. Sullivan MJ, Wood L, Terry J, Brantley J, Charles A, McGee V, et al. The support, education, and research in chronic heart failure study (SEARCH): A mindfulness-based psychoeducational intervention improves depression and clinical symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure. Am Heart J 2009;157:84-90.

   Effects of Long-Term Transcendental Meditation on Life Skills of Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study Top

Satya Prakash Purohit

E-mail: [email protected]

Background: The population of adolescents is 1.2 billion and 253.2 million in the world and India, respectively. Adolescence is a period of rapid biological, psychological, and social transitions. The literature on adolescents highlighted the high magnitude of the developmental and psychosocial social issues. Life skills are the psychological abilities that enable individuals to facilitate the holistic development of an individual's psychosocial well-being. However, little evidence exists to support the effectiveness of different interventions intended to improve the health-related life skills of adolescents. Transcendental meditation (TM) a simple technique developed by Swami Mahesh Yogi and is claimed to have several psychosocial benefits.

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term effect of TM using a life skill questionnaire among adolescents.

Design: It was a cross-sectional study with 800 participants (TM group, n = 400 and non-TM group, n = 400). Data of TM group were collected from the students of three Maharishi Vidya Mandir Schools, in three cities of Madhya Pradesh, who are all have an at least 2 years of practice of TM; however, the data of non-TM group were collected from the nearby other English medium schools. The life skills questionnaire used for the study was standardized for the Indian population with overall reliability of 0.96.

Results and Conclusion: The result showed a highly significant difference (P < 0.001) in all ten life skill domains such as decision-making, problem-solving, empathy, self-awareness, communication skill, interpersonal relationship skill, coping with emotions, coping with stress, creative thinking skill, and critical thinking skill between the TM practitioners and non-TM practitioners. Hence, we acknowledge the strong potential of the effect of TM on the life skills of adolescents and strongly suggest in implementing in the school curriculum.

Keywords: Communication skill, coping with stress, creative thinking skill, critical thinking skill, decision-making, empathy, interpersonal relationship skill, life skills, problem-solving, self-awareness, transcendental meditation

   Raaga or Humming Reduces Stress, Anxiety, and Depression as Prescription in Preventing Cardiovascular Diseases Top

Tamoghna Ghosh

E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: Meditation is one of the most effective ancient ways to mental, emotional and holistic well-being. Meditation is an effort to achieve one-pointedness, which helps us attain a more centered and stable state of self. Music meditation has been effectively used to concentrate and achieve this centered and stable state of self. Music meditation is one of the easiest, cost-effective, noninvasive efficient methods for holistic well-being. Here, we propose that music therapy can effectively be used as an alternative therapy for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, and Cochrane databases for literature related to cardiovascular effects of music therapy.

Results: Ragas Ahir Bhairav, Todi, and Darbari are prescribed for patients suffering from hypertension. Raaga Malkauns helps cure low blood pressure. Carnatic ragas such as Punnagavarali and Sahana are useful to calm the mind and control anger.

Conclusions: Music therapy has shown encouraging results with special reference to heart health. We have observed that music meditation helps in maintaining healthy blood pressure and effective management of hypertensive conditions. It has also helped in stabilizing pregnancy-induced hypertension for pregnant women. Regularly meditating, listening, and practicing relaxing music has showed improved and deeper breathing, better heart rate, and parasympathetic predominance. As the frequency of vibration of blood and heart resonates with the frequency of musical notes, it helps regulate blood pressure and maintain a healthy heart very effectively.

Keywords: Meditation, Music, Wellbeing

   Effect of Meditation on Anxiety of College Girls Top

Vaishali Gaur, Paran Gowda

Assistant Professor, University of Patanjali, 1Professor, University of Patanjali, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: The objective of the study is to measure effect of meditation on anxiety of college going girls.

Methods: A sample size of 60 girls was selected out of 100 girls from University of Patanjali, Haridwar, after screening. These girls were divided into two equal groups – control and experimental. Control group was not given any yoga practices. Experimental group was given 7 days meditation practices, in the morning and evening by a yoga instructor. The age range of the participants was between 18 and 25 years. A statistical paired “t-” test was conducted to find the effect of meditation. Sinha's comprehensive anxiety scale developed by A.K.P Sinha and L.N.K Sinha was given to university girls students. It was an open-ended questionnaire with yes and no type statements.

Results: Two-tailed significant results were found at P = 0.91. The mean value between the control and experimental groups is small. The data are shown below.

Conclusions: The results show a marginal decrease in the anxiety levels of girl students after practice of meditation. The meditation classes were found to have positive effect in making them relaxed before the examinations.

Keywords: Meditation on anxiety, positive effect

   Emotional States of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Hypertensive Patients Attending to Cardiology Outpatient Department in a Tertiary Care Hospital Top

Vijaya Chandra Reddy Konda

E-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: (1) To estimate the prevalence of emotional states of depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) in hypertensive patients. (2) To study the difference in DAS scores among controlled and uncontrolled hypertensive patients.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done in hypertensive patients in the Outpatient Department of Cardiology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, between September 2018 and January 2019. All patients of either sex with essential hypertension and above 18 years of age without any psychiatric illness and other comorbidities were included in the study. Demographics and details on meditation practices if any practiced by patients were collected. Levels of depression, anxiety, and stress were assessed by depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS 21) designed by Syd Lovibond and Peter Lovibond. Measurement of blood pressure (BP) was done by a standard procedure using a manual sphygmomanometer.

Results: Among 189 patients in the study, 88 (46.6%) patients were observed to be emotionally normal by DASS 21. The prevalence for depression was 45 (23.8%), anxiety was 92 (48.7%), and stress was 34 (17.9%). BP was uncontrolled (>140/90 mmHg) in 27 (14.3%) patients. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of DAS among patients with controlled or uncontrolled BP. None of the patients practiced meditation for at least 15 min in a day.

Conclusion: The prevalence of DAS was not related to control of BP and hence the need to develop feasible newer treatment strategies to control emotional states and implement in hypertensive patients.

Keywords: Depression, anxiety, stress

   Short-Term Effects of Rhythmic Breathing Exercises on Glycaemia Variability in Type -2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Top

K. Vinod, Ravi Kant1, Monika Pathania, Meenakshikhapre2, Suman3

Junior Resident, Department of Pharmacology, AIIMS, 1Associate Professor, Department of General Medicine, AIIMS, 2Assistant Professor, Department of Community and Family Medicine, AIIMS, 3Phd, AIIMS, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Poor glycemic control is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is considered as 4th parameter that increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Rhythmic breathing exercises (pranayama) is a way of relaxing the mind through technique of focusing and controlling one's breathing which has proven health benefits beyond doubt. However, these health benefits have hardly been addressed in diabetic patients. Hence, we conducted this study. The current study was conducted on admitted diabetic patients in the Department of General Medicine, AIIMS, Rishikesh. A total of 30 patients were enrolled in the study group and 30 in the control group, with exclusion of confounding factors. The data were analyzed thoroughly, but the initial results showed promising health benefits of pranayama in terms of glycemic variability in diabetic patients.

Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases, pranayama, diabetic patient

   Effect of Integrated Yoga and Naturopathy Treatments on Blood Pressure Changes Among Patients With Hypertension Top

Y. Deepa

E-mail: [email protected]

Background: The sedentary modern lifestyle is prone to produce various physical and psychological stresses, resulting in hypertension and cardiovascular diseases causing high mortality rate in India. Various yoga and naturopathy treatments have the potentials to manage the cardiac and autonomic functions. Therefore, an attempt has been made to determine the effect of these integrated yoga and naturopathy treatments (IYNTs) on hypertensive patients.

Materials and Methods: The present study includes 281 hypertensive patients admitted from January to December 2018 in our inpatient department. An IYNT was given to the patients for 15 days. The recording of blood pressure was done before and after 15 days of the treatment. The results were statistically analyzed using Student's t-test.

Results: The pre- and post-intervention comparison showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in cardiovascular parameters such as systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), PP, and mean arterial pressure after IYNTs in hypertensive patients. In addition to this, body mass index also showed a significant reduction among the patients with hypertension.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that IYNTs have reduced the SBP, DBP, and HR on hypertensive patients by decreasing the sympathetic activity. These therapies can be included in regular management protocol of hypertensive patients.

Keywords: Blood pressure, hypertensive patients, naturopathy, yoga

   Effect of Om Meditation on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Patients With Primary Hypertension: Randomized Controlled Trail Top

Sujithra T S

E-mail: [email protected]

Aim: To find out the effect of Om chanting meditation in reducing blood pressure (BP) in patients with primary hypertension.

Study Design: This study was a randomized controlled trail.

Study Group: Ten patients with primary hypertension without medication.

Control Group: Patients with allopathic medication.

Study Time Period: 1 week (7 days).

Inclusion Criteria: Patients with age range of 35–80 years in both genders are selected for study.

Exclusion Criteria: Medication group are excluded for study group. Pregnant and lactating women are excluded.

Methods: The method of Om meditation is instructed to the patients and they are asked to be seated with Om chanting and then meditation on vibration for about 40–50 min regularly for 7 days. The vital analyses are BP, heart rate, and pulse rate are measured before and after meditation.

Results: It was noted that after Om meditation for about 7 days, both systolic and diastolic BP were decreased significantly with a slight fall in heart rate compared to the control group.

Keywords: Om chanting, meditation, blood pressure

   Acute Effects of Samarpan Meditation on Cardiovascular Responses: A Pilot Study Top

Rutvik J. Raval, Sandhya Kumar1, Preeti K. Bhadreshwara1, Parul Vagadiya1, Mamta Solanki1, Mansi Trivedi1, Harshad N. Patel1, R. J. Verma

Department of Zoology, School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, 1Samarpan Medical Group, Samarpan Ashram, Dandi, Gujarat, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: The objective is to the study the acute effect of Samarpan meditation on cardiovascular responses.

Methods: After taking written consent, a total of n = 100 healthy participants were enrolled in the study. All participants were 55 males and 45 females with age ranged between 18 and 60 years. After baseline measurements were taken, the participants performed meditation for 30 min. Group of participants was reassessed. The participant's pulse and blood oxygenation were measured using a pulse oximeter.

Results: This study revealed the immediate effect of Samarpan meditation on heart rate and oxygen saturation level in the blood. Pulse depression rate was high in participants, and oxygen saturation level was also increased significantly. Data will be discussed.

Conclusion: Results significantly indicate the positive effect of Samarpan meditation on participants.

Keywords: Samarpan meditation, pulse, blood oxygenation

   A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Self-Instructional Module Regarding Reducing Academic Stress Among Students of B.Sc. Nursing in Selected Colleges at Jaipur City Raj Top

Manmohan Singh, Dinesh Kumar1

Nursing Lecturer USB College of Nursing Abu Road, Dist. Sirohi, 1Nursing Tutor, College of Nursing, AIIMS, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India

Background: The term stress means pressure, and in human life, it represents an uneasy experience. It is an unpleasant psychological and physiological state caused due to some internal or external demands that go beyond our capacity. It refers to the consequence of the failure of an organism to respond adequately to mental, emotional, or physical demands, either actual or imagined.

Objectives: The objectives of the study were (1) to assess the level of academic stress among students of B.Sc. Nursing; (2) to assess the effectiveness of self-instructional module in reducing academic stress among B.Sc. Nursing students; and (3) to find out the association between posttest stress scores and selected demographic variables.

Methodology: The research approach adopted for the study was a preexperimental research approach. The research design adopted for the study was a preexperimental research design. The data were collected through the tool which is prepared by an investigator. The sample consists of 50 students. The tool used for the data collection was structured stress knowledge questionnaire, which has two sections. Section A consists of items on sociodemographic variables and Section B consists of items on stress questionnaires regarding stress related to academic condition, stress related to social condition, and stress related to family/environmental condition.

Results: The results show that the maximum mean percentage obtained by the students is found in the aspect of stress related to social condition (52.52%) followed by stress related to general/personal condition (52.24%) and stress related to family/environmental condition (49.66%), and the least mean percentage obtained in the aspect of stress related to academic condition (49.60%). The overall mean ± standard deviation (SD) of posttest level of academic stress was 46.13 ± 2.42 and mean percentage of 46.13%.

Conclusion: The overall findings of the study revealed that there was overall mean knowledge score obtained by the students was 46.13 and with SD 2.42 and the mean percentage was 51.25%. Hence, this indicates that level of academic stress is reduced among students.

Keywords: Academic stress, assess, effectiveness, self-instructional module, stress

   Fast Fourier Transform-Transformed Electroence Phalo Graphic Correlates of Introduction to Meditation in Novice Participants Top

Yogesh Singh

E-mail: [email protected]

Objectives: To explore fast Fourier transform (FFT)-transformed, individual alpha frequency (IAF)-based electroencephalographic (EEG) correlates of the first session of a special type of meditation in novice participants.

Methods: The study was conducted on 34 healthy male volunteers, who were introduced to a 15-min special-type meditation (mix of focused attention and automatic transcendence type) under expert guidance. EEG was recorded in accord to the 10-20 International System. The outcome measures were FFT-transformed, IAF-based absolute powers in six frequency bands during the early, middle, and late phase of meditation and control phase (eye-closed, relax mental state).

Results: With progression of meditation, increasing number of electrodes records a declining trend of absolute power in theta, lower alpha-1, and lower alpha-2 bands. However, power in beta band was consistently decreased while upper alpha and gamma band power remained unchanged throughout meditation as compared to control phase.

Conclusions: Introduction to the first session of special type of meditation has distinct EEG correlates, resembling a state of increased mental alertness and less intrusive memories and thoughts. Emergent wave pattern is also suggestive of partial transcendence shift.

Keywords: Meditation, mental alertness, intrusive memories

   Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure Among Prehypertensive and Hypertensive Individuals: A Systematic Review Top

Raksha Yadav, Garima, Rakesh Sharma, Prasuna Jelly, Harjot Kaur Dhami

College of Nursing, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Introduction: As per the WHO reports, about 17.9 million deaths occurred in 016 due to cardiovascular diseases, representing nearly one-third of all global deaths and hypertension being one important cause of that. Hence, this review was aimed at systematically assessing the effects of various forms of yoga on prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals from the randomized controlled trials.

Methodology: Electronic databases were screened by all authors independently in February 2019 to include six studies. The inclusion criteria for interventions were (a) randomized control trial (RCT), (b) indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane library, IndMED, Scopus, Google Scholar, (c) published between January 2013 and December 2018, and (d) RCTs on prehypertensive and hypertensive patients.

Results: A total of 424 participants were enrolled in the selected six studies, 242 in the experimental group and the remaining 182 being the controls. 155 (36.56%) of the participants were lost to follow-up. The study findings revealed significant reduction in the systolic blood pressure in all the RCTs except one. Findings also revealed that yoga helped in normalization of both systolic and diastolic hypertension.

Discussion: This meta-analysis showed the clinically considerable effects of yoga on hypertension among prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. The findings showed yoga can be an effective modality to reduce blood pressure in such patients as found by various other studies and reviews as well. Yoga can be used among patients who are with risk of hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders.

Keywords: Blood pressure, cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, pre-hypertension, systematic review, yoga

   Relationship Between Effect on Heart Rate Variability Parameters and Happiness Level During Heartfulness Meditation Processes Top

Rahul Mehrotra, Narendra Kumar Arya1, Ashutosh Saxena2

Head Cardiology Department, Max Super Speciality Hospital, Saket, 2DRDO, New Delhi,1NRCVEE, IIT, Delhi, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: To find relationship between effect on heart rate variability (HRV) parameters and happiness level during heartfulness meditation and cleaning processes.

Methods: Thirty practitioners of heartfulness system (21 men, 9 women; age 19–70 years, mean = 45.1 years, and standard deviaiton = 12.7 years) participated in the study voluntarily. Holter monitoring was done on each participant during a period of rest and heartfulness processes of meditation and cleaning (30 min each). HRV parameters – normalized unit of low frequency (LFnu), normalized unit of high frequency (HFnu), and LF/HF – were recorded using software (Make DYAUSMED Healthcare, India). Psychological scales – Cantril's ladder scale, scale of positive and negative experience (SPANE), and flourishing scale – were used to assess overall happiness and well-being of the participants. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16.

Results: Changes in HRV parameters LFnu, HFnu and LF/HF during meditation and cleaning had no significant correlation with happiness level before the practices as assessed on Cantril's ladder, flourishing, SPANE (positive), SPANE (negative), and SPANE (balance). The significance level (two-tailed) was checked at 0.05 using Pearson's correlation method.

Conclusion: Effect of heartfulness meditation and cleaning on HRV parameters does not depend on happiness-related psychological parameters of the participants measured before the practice of heartfulness processes.

Keywords: Heartfulness meditation, heart rate variability, Healthcare

   The Yogtech Kit, a System to Improve Yoga Postures and Breathing, and Record User Progress – BLUEPRINT FOR IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING Top

Rohan Tripathi

E-mail: [email protected]

Objective: The objective of the study is to help yoga enthusiasts effectively practice the yogic asanas and efficiently track their progress along the path giving special importance to proper breathing and accurate posture.

Methods: We have developed the first version of the prototype of a composite yoga kit named YogTech. This contains a smart yoga mat and a breathing mask, both connected to an android app via Bluetooth. The mat contains an array of transducer-based pressure sensors and LED indicators to indicate proper posture and also ensure its accurate implementation. The mask follows a set of wind pipes connected to mouth and nose of the user. The sensors set in the wind pipes record the breathing pattern of the user. The android app allows personalization and contains a wide library of yogic data. Further, the app can be connected to smart wearable devices. The system can be incorporated with smart home devices such as Amazon Alexa or Google Home.

Results: Currently, the prototype system is awaiting clinical validation. We are due to meet various field experts for their opinion of our kit. We also plan to initially arrange a study of 20 participants including experienced yoga enthusiasts and beginners. We would like to find all possible rooms from improvement.

Conclusion: Late B. K. S. Iyengar said, “Yoga is a mirror to look at ourselves from within.” We dream to provide the user a way to look at their yoga from outside too.

   An Epidimeology Study on Symtoms of Cardiovascular Disease Among Yoga Performers and Nonyoga Performers Top

Amandeep Kaur, Yudhvir Singh, Prakash Singh, Manoj Kumar Sharma

Centre for Public Health, Panjab University, Chhattisgarh, India. E-mail: [email protected]

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of early morbidity and mortality in most developed countries. A sedentary lifestyle and stress are major risk for CVD. Lifestyle modification plays an important role in secondary prevention. Yoga and meditation have been regarded as a type of physical activity as well as a stress management strategy. In this study, growing evidence suggests the beneficial effects of yoga and meditation on various ailments.

Objective: To determine the effect of yoga and meditation on the primary prevention of CVD.

Methods: This study was done as a nonrandomized control trial. A comparative study was done on two groups of people: first group having 50 people doing yoga and second group having 30 people not doing any physical activities. Questionnaire design was used to collect data.

Results: We identified two trials (80 participants). Fifty participants recruited to the study were not having any problem regarding CVD those doing yoga and meditation regularly and rest of the 30 participants not doing any physical activities regularly most of them have symptoms of CVD.

Conclusions: Based on this study, there is a need to further explore yoga and meditation among those people who are not aware of the benefits of yoga in daily life. Yoga-based lifestyle shows promising results in reducing CVD.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, meditation, Yoga

   Role of Meditation in Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Top

Divya, Utkarsh Gupta, G. P. Garg

Department of Kaumarbhritya, UAU, Gurukul Campus, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India. E-mail:[email protected]

Objectives: Advancements in technology and industrialization brought a lot of change in the lifestyle of a person globally over the years, trigged with many lifestyle disorders in the present and upcoming generations which have become very common in human civilization. They are diabetes, hypertension, asthma, heart diseases, depression, obesity, etc. Cardiovascular disorders continue to be the major cause of mortality, representing about 30% of all deaths worldwide. Meditation is concomitantly a relaxed as well as an alert state such that it is likely that cardiac output and cerebral blood flow both probably increase during meditation. The practice of yoga induces significant alterations in the neurohormonal system, resulting in improved electrophysiological activity of the brain. Yoga is not merely a few postures (asanas) but a holistic lifestyle which promotes physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual well-being.

Methods: Many databases including research articles from PubMed, J-AIM, Research Gate, and Yoga textbooks are considered reviewed with the keywords such as meditation, cardiovascular disease (CVD), yoga, and lifestyle.

Results: Yoga is believed to help detoxify the body, mitigate chronic fatigue, enhance endurance, and improve organ and immune functions. Beneficial effects of yoga have been reported in multiple chronic conditions including depression, stress, anxiety, menopausal symptoms, arthritis, low back pain, cancer, allergies, asthma, acid peptic disease, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and CVDs. Several studies suggest that yoga may significantly reduce risk factors for CVD such as body weight, lipid profile, blood pressure (BP), smoking, psychosocial stress, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although the results of yoga on hypertension are mixed, a recent meta-analysis studied the effect of Transcendental Meditation™ on BP in nine well-conducted randomized controlled trials. The possible mechanism of reduction of BP is considered to be reduced sympathetic activity and restoration of baroreceptor sensitivity by yoga. Several studies show Transcendental Meditation™ techniques may be considered to lower BP as well as reduce the heart attacks, stroke, and deaths in CVD patients. A US-based study has demonstrated that mindfulness-based stress reduction such as yoga reduced the average number of visits to primary care physicians in inner-city areas, suggesting that yoga may contribute to general health and particularly in cardiac health in populations that are subject to significant mental stress. Two randomized trials have also shown that early atherosclerosis (as assessed by carotid intimal-medial thickness) is significantly reduced by regular practice of yoga/meditation.

Conclusions: Yoga has been established as an effective means to improve overall health especially in patients suffering from stress, hypertension, coronary atherosclerosis, heart failure, dyslipidemia, diabetes, anxiety, depression, and other similar conditions. It is obvious that the regular practice of yoga, particularly when combined with other lifestyle modifications, can induce biochemical alterations that have a salutary effect of cardiac hemodynamics, blood lipids, fasting blood sugar, body mass, and thought process.

Keywords: Holistic lifestyle, Meditation, Yoga

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