International Journal of Yoga
Users online: 820 
Ahead of print | Reader Login
 
Home Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size 
About us Editors Current Issue Past Issues Instructions submission Subscribe Advertise
Export selected to
Endnote
Reference Manager
Procite
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2012| July-December  | Volume 5 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 9, 2012

 
 
  Archives   Previous Issue   Next Issue   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
 
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Viewed PDF Cited
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Yoga in Australia: Results of a national survey
Stephen Penman, Marc Cohen, Philip Stevens, Sue Jackson
July-December 2012, 5(2):92-101
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98217  PMID:22869991
Introduction: The therapeutic benefits of yoga and meditation are well documented, yet little is known about the practice of yoga in Australia or elsewhere, whether as a physical activity, a form of therapy, a spiritual path or a lifestyle. Materials and Methods: To investigate the practice of yoga in Australia, a national survey of yoga practitioners was conducted utilizing a comprehensive web-based questionnaire. Respondents were self-selecting to participate. A total of 3,892 respondents completed the survey. Sixty overseas respondents and 1265 yoga teachers (to be reported separately) were excluded, leaving 2,567 yoga practitioner respondents. Results: The typical yoga survey respondent was a 41-year-old, tertiary educated, employed, health-conscious female (85% women). Asana (postures) and vinyasa (sequences of postures) represented 61% of the time spent practicing, with the other 39% devoted to the gentler practices of relaxation, pranayama (breathing techniques), meditation and instruction. Respondents commonly started practicing yoga for health and fitness but often continued practicing for stress management. One in five respondents practiced yoga for a specific health or medical reason which was seen to be improved by yoga practice. Of these, more people used yoga for stress management and anxiety than back, neck or shoulder problems, suggesting that mental health may be the primary health-related motivation for practicing yoga. Healthy lifestyle choices were seen to be more prevalent in respondents with more years of practice. Yoga-related injuries occurring under supervision in the previous 12 months were low at 2.4% of respondents. Conclusions: Yoga practice was seen to assist in the management of specific health issues and medical conditions. Regular yoga practice may also exert a healthy lifestyle effect including vegetarianism, non-smoking, reduced alcohol consumption, increased exercise and reduced stress with resulting cost benefits to the community.
  13,513 29 3
REVIEW ARTICLE
Yoga therapy for Schizophrenia
N Gangadhar Bangalore, Shivarama Varambally
July-December 2012, 5(2):85-91
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98212  PMID:22869990
Schizophrenia is one of the most severe mental disorders. Despite significant advances in pharmacotherapy, treatment remains sub-optimal, with many patients having persisting deficits, especially in cognitive and social functioning. Yoga as a therapy has proven to be effective as a sole or additional intervention in psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been significant interest in the application of yoga therapy in psychosis and schizophrenia. To review a) the evidence for the use of yoga therapy in patients with schizophrenia b) studies which have been done in this area, c) the barriers for reaching yoga to patients, and d) future directions, an English language literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and EBSCO as well as grey literature was done. Research reports have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of yoga as an add-on therapy in schizophrenia, particularly in improving negative symptomatology and social cognition. However, the biological underpinnings of this effect remain unclear, although there are some indications that hormones like oxytocin may contribute to the changes in social cognition.
  11,029 34 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Immediate effect of chandra nadi pranayama (left unilateral forced nostril breathing) on cardiovascular parameters in hypertensive patients
Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani, Madanmohan , Zeena Sanjay
July-December 2012, 5(2):108-111
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98221  PMID:22869993
Introduction : Recent studies have reported differential physiological and psychological effects produced by exclusive right and left nostril breathing and clinical research is required to prove immediate and sustained efficacy of these techniques in various psychosomatic conditions such as hypertension (HT). The present study was designed to determine immediate effects of 27 rounds of exclusive left nostril breathing, a yogic pranayama technique known as chandra nadi pranayama (CNP) on cardiovascular parameters in patients of essential HT. Materials and Methods : Twenty two patients of essential HT under regular standard medical management were individually taught to perform CNP by a qualified yoga instructor with a regularity of 6 breaths/min throughout a performance of 27 rounds of CNP. Pre and post intervention heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) measurements were recorded using non-invasive semi-automatic BP monitor and Students t test for paired data used to determine significant differences. Results : Twenty seven rounds of CNP produced an immediate decrease in all the measured cardiovascular parameters with the decrease in HR, systolic pressure (SP), pulse pressure, rate-pressure product and double product being statistically significant. Further, gender-based sub-analysis of our data revealed that our male participants evidenced significant reductions in HR and SP with an insignificant decrease in diastolic pressure, while in female participants only HR decreased significantly with an insignificant decrease in SP. Discussion and Conclusion : It is concluded that CNP is effective in reducing HR and SP in hypertensive patients on regular standard medical management. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previously published reports on immediate effects of left UFNB in patients of HT and ours is the first to report on this beneficial clinical effect. This may be due to a normalization of autonomic cardiovascular rhythms with increased vagal modulation and/or decreased sympathetic activity along with improvement in baroreflex sensitivity. Further studies are required to enable a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved as well as determine how long such a BP lowering effect persists. We recommend that this simple and cost effective technique be added to the regular management protocol of HT and utilized when immediate reduction of BP is required in day-to-day as well as clinical situations.
  10,945 15 5
Effect of holistic yoga program on anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls with polycystic ovarian syndrome: A randomized control trial
Ram Nidhi, Venkatram Padmalatha, Raghuram Nagarathna, Ram Amritanshu
July-December 2012, 5(2):112-117
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98223  PMID:22869994
Context: Yoga techniques practiced for varying durations have been shown to reduce state anxiety. This was never assessed in adolescents with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Aims: To compare the effect of a holistic yoga program with the conventional exercise program on anxiety level in adolescents with PCOS. Settings and Design: Ninety adolescent (15-18 years) girls from a residential college in Andhra Pradesh, who satisfied the Rotterdam criteria, were randomized into two groups. Materials and Methods: Anxiety levels were assessed at inclusion and after 12 weeks of intervention wherein yoga group practiced a holistic yoga module while the control group practiced a matching set of physical exercises (1 h/day, for 12 weeks). Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare difference scores (delta change) between the two groups Results: Changes in state anxiety after the intervention were nonsignificantly different between the two groups (P=0.243), while changes after the intervention were significantly different between the two groups (P=0.002) for trait anxiety. Conclusions: Twelve weeks of a holistic yoga program in adolescents with PCOS is significantly better than physical exercise program in reducing anxiety symptoms.
  4,675 24 1
A comparative study of the effects of yoga and swimming on pulmonary functions in sedentary subjects
Shilpa S Gupta, Manish V Sawane
July-December 2012, 5(2):128-133
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98232  PMID:22869997
Context: The modality of exercise that is most beneficial and easy to perform has become a topic of research. Yogic exercises are being widely studied; however, postulated benefits of yogic exercises over other exercises must be scientifically explored. Prospective randomized comparative studies involving yoga and other endurance exercises are conspicuous by their absence. Aim: This study was, therefore, designed to assess and compare the effects of yogic training and swimming on pulmonary functions in normal healthy young volunteers. Materials and Methods: 100 volunteers were inducted into the study and randomly divided into two groups: One group underwent 12 weeks training for yogic exercises and other for swimming. The training and data acquisition was done in small cohorts of 10 subjects each. The subjects were assessed by studying their anthropometric parameters and pulmonary function parameters (FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, PEFR, FEF25-75%, FEF 0.2-1.2 l and MVV) both before and after training. Results: All parameters showed statistically significant improvements after both yoga and swimming. Comparison of these improvements for different parameters statistically analyzed by unpaired t test or Mann Whitney U test depicted a statistically better improvement in FVC, FEF25-75% and MVV with swimming as compared to yogic exercises. Conclusions: The output of this study gives slight edge to swimming as a preferred modality of exercise though either yoga or swimming can be advocated as an exercise prescription as both the modalities cause significant improvement of respiratory health. However, other factors like ability of any exercise regime to keep continued motivation and interest of the trainees must be taken into account for exercise prescription.
  4,323 15 2
Yoga breathing through a particular nostril is associated with contralateral event-related potential changes
Shirley Telles, Meesha Joshi, Prasoon Somvanshi
July-December 2012, 5(2):102-107
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98220  PMID:22869992
Background: In earlier studies uninostril yoga breathing was shown to influence the activity of the cerebral hemispheres differently, based on (i) auditory evoked potentials recorded from bilateral scalp sites, and (ii) performance in hemisphere-specific tasks. But change in P300 (event-related potential generated when subjects attend to and discriminate between stimuli) from bilateral scalp sites when subjects were practicing uni- and alternate-nostril breathing are yet to be explored. Aim: The present study was designed to determine whether or not immediately after uninostril or alternate nostril yoga breathing there would be a change in the ability to pay attention to a given stimulus. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers, with ages between 20 and 45 years were randomly allocated to five sessions, viz., (i) right-, (ii) left-, (iii) alternate-nostril yoga breathing, (iv) breath awareness and (v) no intervention, each for 45 min on separate days. The P300 event related potential was recorded using an auditory oddball paradigm from sites on the left (C3) and right (C4), referenced to linked earlobes, before and after each session. Results: Post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment showed that the P300 peak latency was significantly lower at C3 compared to that at C4, following right nostril yoga breathing (P<0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that right nostril yoga breathing facilitates the activity of contralateral (left) hemisphere, in the performance of the P300 task.
  4,254 21 1
Study of the effect of yoga training on diffusion capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: A controlled trial
Ritu Soni, Kanika Munish, KP Singh, Savita Singh
July-December 2012, 5(2):123-127
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98230  PMID:22869996
Background: Patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at high risk for depression and anxiety. Yoga techniques are suited for promoting relaxation, psycho-emotional stability and exercise tolerance. Studies showing the effect of yoga in diffusion capacity are not available; hence this study was planned. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 diagnosed stable mild-to-moderate COPD patients in the age group of 30-60 years, of either sex, in the department of physiology. Patients were taken from Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi and divided into two groups: Control and the yoga group. Both the groups were on conventional drug therapy. Subjects from the Yoga group was called to cardiopulmonary laboratory daily for 21 days and then weekly for the compliance. Yoga instructor taught them the technique of pranayama and various postures every day. They practiced yoga at home for 2 months for 45 min in the mornings. Diffusion capacity was recorded by using computerized Medisoft instrument (HYPAIR compact), in both the groups before and after 2 months. Results: Statistical analysis showed significant improvement in TLCO of the yoga group. Transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide i.e. TLCO in mild COPD increased from 17.61 ± 4.55 to 19.08 ± 5.09 ml/mmHg/min, and in moderate COPD it increased from 14.99 ± 4.02 to17.35 ± 3.97 ml/mmHg/min. Conclusion: It was concluded that yogic breathing exercises improve diffusion capacity. They are beneficial to COPD patients and they can be used as an adjunct therapy with the conventional medical therapy.
  4,214 22 -
Protracted parahippocampal activity associated with Sean Harribance
Michael A Persinger, Kevin S Saroka
July-December 2012, 5(2):140-145
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98238  PMID:22869999
Aims: Previous research published by Venkatasubramanian et al. (2008) in this journal showed markedly enhanced functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity within the right parahippocampal region of a gifted person while he experienced accurate "telepathic" impression. The present research is designed to discern if Sean Harribance, a reliable psychic who reported independently verified accurate histories of others during his intuitive state, would also show similar enhancement as measured by standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). Materials and Methods and Results: The raw data from the unique electroencephalographic pattern displayed by Sean Harribance (the Harribance configuration) during his intuitive state revealed a peak increase of power within the upper beta range (20-30 Hz) within the right parahippocampal region only. Conclusions: The congruence of the region of activation during "telepathy" by Sean Harribance and Gerard Senehi, especially when the specific electromagnetic and cellular characteristics are considered, suggests the parahippocampal region may be a focus for exploration of the mechanisms by which these phenomena might occur.
  4,207 24 1
A short-term, comprehensive, yoga-based lifestyle intervention is efficacious in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality
Raj Kumar Yadav, Dipti Magan, Manju Mehta, Nalin Mehta, Sushil Chandra Mahapatra
July-December 2012, 5(2):134-139
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98235  PMID:22869998
Objective: To assess the efficacy of a short-term comprehensive yoga-based lifestyle intervention in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality. Materials and Methods: The study is a part of an ongoing larger study at a tertiary care hospital. Participants (n=90) included patients with chronic diseases attending a 10-day, yoga-based lifestyle intervention program for prevention and management of chronic diseases, and healthy controls (n=45) not attending any such intervention. Primary Outcome Measures: Change in state and trait anxiety questionnaire (STAI-Y; 40 items), subjective well-being inventory (SUBI; 40 items), and neuroticism extraversion openness to experience five factor personality inventory revised (NEO-FF PI-R; 60 items) at the end of intervention. Results: Following intervention, the STAI-Y scores reduced significantly (P<0.001) at Day 10 (66.7 ± 13.0) versus Day 1 (72.5 ± 14.7). Also, positive SUBI scores (F1- F6) improved significantly (P<</i>0.01) at Day 10 versus Day 1. Similarly NEO-FF PI-R scores improved significantly (P<0.001) at Day 10 versus Day 1. Control group showed an increase in STAI-Y while SUBI and NEO-FF PI-R scores remained comparable at Day 10 versus Day 1. Conclusions: The observations suggest that a short-term, yoga-based lifestyle intervention may significantly reduce anxiety and improve subjective well-being and personality in patients with chronic diseases.
  4,188 13 1
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Safety and feasibility of modified chair-yoga on functional outcome among elderly at risk for falls
Mary Lou Galantino, Laurie Green, Jason A DeCesari, Nicole A MacKain, Stephen M Rinaldi, Maureen E Stevens, Vanessa R Wurst, Robert Marsico, Michelle Nell, Jun J Mao
July-December 2012, 5(2):146-150
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98242  PMID:22870000
Falls are among the most common problems affecting older adults. At least 50% of those over the age of 80 fall annually. The goal of this pilot study was to assess the safety and feasibility of structured yoga in an elderly population with fall risk. Seniors at risk for falls were identified and enrolled in a single arm pilot trial. A chair based yoga program was provided twice a week for 8 weeks. The program was designed from previously published pilot data. A battery of validated instruments was administered at baseline and week eight and was used to identify which instruments may be sensitive to change as a result of a yoga program. Among sixteen seniors (median age of 88) with a previous history of falls, 87% provided data for assessment at the end of the intervention. Two patients withdrew, one due to a fall outside the institution and the other due to lack of time and interest. There were no adverse events during the yoga sessions. Paired-t tests compared pre-post changes and gains were noted in Fear of Falling (5.27 to 2.60; P = 0.029) and SPPB sit to stand subscale (0.31 to 1.00; P =.022). Improved trends were noted in anxiety and the timed up and go assessments. We found the modified chair-yoga program is safe and recruitment is feasible. Our data suggests that yoga may be beneficial in improving mobility and reducing fear of falling which warrants additional research via randomized controlled trial.
  4,017 26 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative study of conventional therapy and additional yogasanas for knee rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty
Nilima Bedekar, Archana Prabhu, Ashok Shyam, Kantilal Sancheti, Parag Sancheti
July-December 2012, 5(2):118-122
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98226  PMID:22869995
Background: Amongst various modalities of post operative rehabilitation in a total knee replacement (TKR) surgery, this study focuses on evaluating the effect of additional yoga therapy on functional outcome of TKR patients. Materials and Methods: A comparative study was done to compare the effects of conventional physiotherapy and additional yoga asanas, on 56 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty due to osteoarthritis. After obtaining written informed consent, the patients were alternately assigned to two groups: Conventional and experimental. Baseline WOMAC scores for pain and stiffness were taken on third post operative day. The subjects in conventional group received physiotherapy rehabilitation program of Sancheti Institute where the study was conducted, the experimental group received additional modified yoga asanas once daily by the therapist. After discharge from the hospital, patients were provided with written instructions and photographs of the asanas, two sets of WOMAC questionnaire with stamped and addressed envelopes and were instructed to perform yoga asanas 3 days/week. Subjects filled the questionnaire after 6 weeks and 3 months from the day of surgery and mailed back. The primary outcome measure was WOMAC questionnaire which consists of 24 questions, each corresponding to a visual analog scale, designed to measure patient's perception of pain, stiffness and function. Results: The results suggest that there was a significant change (P<0.05) for all the groups for pain, stiffness and function subscales of WOMAC scale. The pain and stiffness was found to be less in experimental group receiving additional yoga therapy than in conventional group on 3 rd post operative day, 6 weeks and 3 months after the surgery. Conclusion: A combination of physiotherapy and yoga asana protocol works better than only physiotherapy protocol. Larger and blinded study is needed.
  4,003 18 3
CASE REPORT
The influence of a yoga exercise program for young adults with intellectual disabilities
Brent L Hawkins, Joanna B Stegall, Madalyn F Weber, Joseph B Ryan
July-December 2012, 5(2):151-156
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98244  PMID:22870001
Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) have an increased risk of obesity and are significantly less likely to engage in physical activity compared to their nondisabled peers. A growing body of research supports the physical and mental health benefits of yoga. While the benefits of yoga have been studied across a host of populations with varying ages and physical disabilities, no studies could be identified investigating the benefits of yoga for young adults with ID. Aims: This study investigated the impact of participating in yoga classes on the amount of exercise behavior and perception of physical exertion when compared to non-structured exercise sessions between two young adults with ID in a post-secondary education setting. Materials and Methods: A single subject multiple baseline research design was implemented across two young adults with mild ID to determine the effects of a yoga exercise class on frequency of exercise behavior and perception of physical exertion when compared to non-structured exercise sessions. Partial interval recording, the Eston-Parfitt curvilinear rating of perceived exertion scale, and the physical activity enjoyment scale were implemented to collect data on dependent variables and consumer satisfaction during each non-structured exercise session and each yoga class. Results: indicated that percentage of exercise behavior and perceived exertion levels during yoga group exercise sharply increased with large effect sizes when compared to non-structured exercise sessions.
  3,725 16 -
BOOK REVIEW
Kundalini yoga meditation for complex psychiatric disorders
Aarti Jagannathan
July-December 2012, 5(2):161-163
  3,534 19 -
EDITORIAL
Models and mechanisms in yoga research
TM Srinivasan
July-December 2012, 5(2):83-84
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98211  PMID:22869989
  3,048 19 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Yoga is not an intervention but may be yogopathy is
Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani
July-December 2012, 5(2):157-158
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98247  PMID:22870003
  2,423 14 -
Yoga beyond union
Marcy C McCall
July-December 2012, 5(2):160-160
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98249  PMID:22870005
  1,634 13 -
Yoga, mental health and salivary amylase
Viroj Wiwanitkit
July-December 2012, 5(2):157-157
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98245  PMID:22870002
  1,471 16 -
Response to "Yoga is not an intervention but may be yogopathy is"
R Nagarathna
July-December 2012, 5(2):158-159
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98248  PMID:22870004
  1,420 16 -
  Search 
  Addresses 
  My Preferences 
  Ahead of print