International Journal of Yoga
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   2009| July-December  | Volume 2 | Issue 2  
    Online since February 22, 2010

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico
Arnulfo Ramos-Jimenez, Rosa P Hernandez-Torres, Abraham Wall-Medrano, Maria DJ Munoz-Daw, Patricia V Torres-Duran, Marco A Juarez-Oropeza
July-December 2009, 2(2):49-54
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.60044  PMID:20842264
Background: Hatha Yoga (HY) can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle- aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY) exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY) on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis) were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions). The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), % body fat and ∑ skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VE max ), maximal O 2 consumption (VO 2max ), maximal heart rate (HR max ), systolic (BPs) and diastolic blood pressure (BPd)], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day), program adherence (~85%), and exercising skills (asana performance) were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO 2max and VE max and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO 2max and HDL-C) in middle-aged and older women.
  8,243 265 3
Effects of yoga on symptom management in breast cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial
Vadiraja S Hosakote, M Raghavendra Rao, R Hongasandra Nagendra, Nagarathna Raghuram, Rekha Mohan, Vanitha Nanjundiah, S Kodaganuru Gopinath, BS Srinath, MS Vishweshwara, YS Madhavi, S Ajaikumar Basavalingaiah, Ramesh S Bilimagga, Nalini Rao
July-December 2009, 2(2):73-79
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.60048  PMID:20842268
Objectives: This study compares the effects of an integrated yoga program with brief supportive therapy on distressful symptoms in breast cancer outpatients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight stage II and III breast cancer outpatients were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 44) or brief supportive therapy (n = 44) prior to their radiotherapy treatment. Intervention consisted of yoga sessions lasting 60 min daily while the control group was imparted supportive therapy once in 10 days during the course of their adjuvant radiotherapy. Assessments included Rotterdam Symptom Check List and European Organization for Research in the Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life (EORTC QoL C30) symptom scale. Assessments were done at baseline and after 6 weeks of radiotherapy treatment. Results: A GLM repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant decrease in psychological distress (P = 0.01), fatigue (P = 0.007), insomnia (P = 0.001), and appetite loss (P = 0.002) over time in the yoga group as compared to controls. There was significant improvement in the activity level (P = 0.02) in the yoga group as compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between physical and psychological distress and fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, appetite loss, and constipation. There was a significant negative correlation between the activity level and fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, and appetite loss. Conclusion: The results suggest beneficial effects with yoga intervention in managing cancer- and treatment-related symptoms in breast cancer patients.
  8,036 172 15
Effect of yogic education system and modern education system on memory
R Rangan, HR Nagendra, G Ramachandra Bhat
July-December 2009, 2(2):55-61
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.60045  PMID:20842265
Background/Aim: Memory is more associated with the temporal cortex than other cortical areas. The two main components of memory are spatial and verbal which relate to right and left hemispheres of the brain, respectively. Many investigations have shown the beneficial effects of yoga on memory and temporal functions of the brain. This study was aimed at comparing the effect of one Gurukula Education System (GES) school based on a yoga way of life with a school using the Modern Education System (MES) on memory. Materials and Methods: Forty nine boys of ages ranging from 11-13 years were selected from each of two residential schools, one MES and the other GES, providing similar ambiance and daily routines. The boys were matched for age and socioeconomic status. The GES educational program is based around integrated yoga modules while the MES provides a conventional modern education program. Memory was assessed by means of standard spatial and verbal memory tests applicable to Indian conditions before and after an academic year. Results: Between groups there was matching at start of the academic year, while after it the GES boys showed significant enhancement in both verbal and visual memory scores than MES boys (P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney test). Conclusions: The present study showed that the GES meant for total personality development adopting yoga way of life is more effective in enhancing visual and verbal memory scores than the MES.
  7,225 161 2
REVIEW ARTICLE
A review of the scientific studies on cyclic meditation
Pailoor Subramanya, Shirley Telles
July-December 2009, 2(2):46-48
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.60043  PMID:20842263
  6,753 273 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Motion analysis of sun salutation using magnetometer and accelerometer
SN Omkar, Meenakshi Mour, Debarun Das
July-December 2009, 2(2):62-68
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.60046  PMID:20842266
Background: Sun salutation is a part of yoga. It consists of a sequence of postures done with synchronized breathing. The practice of few cycles of sun salutation is known to help in maintaining good health and vigor. The practice of sun salutation does not need any extra gadgets. Also it is very much aerobic and invigorates the body and the mind. sun salutation, which comprises 10 postures, involves most of the joints of the body. Understanding the transition phase during motion is a challenging task, and thus, new convenient methods need to be employed. Aims: The purpose of this study was to get an insight into the motion analysis of sun salutation during the transition from each of the 10 postures. Materials and Methods: A device MicroStrain sensor 3DM-GX1, which is a combination of magnetometers, accelerometers, and gyroscopes was used to measure the inclination and the acceleration of the body along the three axes. The acceleration obtained was then separated into gravitational and kinematic components. Results and Conclusions: The value of the gravitational component helps us to understand the position of the body and the kinematic component helps us to analyze the grace of the motion.
  4,491 138 1
Normative data for the digit-letter substitution task in school children
Balaram Pradhan, HR Nagendra
July-December 2009, 2(2):69-72
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.60047  PMID:20842267
Background/Aims: To establish the norms for the substitution task, a measure of psychomotor performance. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and forty three school students were selected in the present study aged between 9-16 years (mean age = 12.14; SD = 1.77). Subjects were assessed one at a time for Digit-Letter Substitution Task (DLST). Results: Both age and sex influenced performance on the DLST; therefore, correction scores were obtained on the basis of these factors. Conclusions: The availability of the Indian normative data for the DLST will allow wider application of this test in clinical practice.
  4,490 89 -
EDITORIAL
The power of prana
HR Nagendra
July-December 2009, 2(2):45-45
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.60042  PMID:20842262
  4,019 313 -
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