International Journal of Yoga
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effects of yoga on symptom management in breast cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial
Vadiraja S Hosakote, M Raghavendra Rao, R Hongasandra Nagendra, Nagarathna Raghuram, Rekha Mohan, Vanitha Nanjundiah, S Kodaganuru Gopinath, BS Srinath, MS Vishweshwara, YS Madhavi, S Ajaikumar Basavalingaiah, Ramesh S Bilimagga, Nalini Rao
July-December 2009, 2(2):73-79
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.60048  PMID:20842268
Objectives: This study compares the effects of an integrated yoga program with brief supportive therapy on distressful symptoms in breast cancer outpatients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight stage II and III breast cancer outpatients were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 44) or brief supportive therapy (n = 44) prior to their radiotherapy treatment. Intervention consisted of yoga sessions lasting 60 min daily while the control group was imparted supportive therapy once in 10 days during the course of their adjuvant radiotherapy. Assessments included Rotterdam Symptom Check List and European Organization for Research in the Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life (EORTC QoL C30) symptom scale. Assessments were done at baseline and after 6 weeks of radiotherapy treatment. Results: A GLM repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant decrease in psychological distress (P = 0.01), fatigue (P = 0.007), insomnia (P = 0.001), and appetite loss (P = 0.002) over time in the yoga group as compared to controls. There was significant improvement in the activity level (P = 0.02) in the yoga group as compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between physical and psychological distress and fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, appetite loss, and constipation. There was a significant negative correlation between the activity level and fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, and appetite loss. Conclusion: The results suggest beneficial effects with yoga intervention in managing cancer- and treatment-related symptoms in breast cancer patients.
  15 8,573 172
Effect of an integrated approach of yoga therapy on quality of life in osteoarthritis of the knee joint: A randomized control study
John Ebnezar, Raghuram Nagarathna, Yogitha Bali, Hongasandra Ramarao Nagendra
July-December 2011, 4(2):55-63
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.85486  PMID:22022123
Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of addition of integrated yoga therapy to therapeutic exercises in osteoarthritis (OA) of knee joints. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective randomized active control trial. A total of t participants with OA of knee joints between 35 and 80 years (yoga, 59.56 ± 9.54 and control, 59.42 ± 10.66) from the outpatient department of Dr. John's Orthopedic Center, Bengaluru, were randomly assigned to receive yoga or physiotherapy exercises after transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound treatment of the affected knee joints. Both groups practiced supervised intervention (40 min per day) for 2 weeks (6 days per week) with followup for 3 months. The module of integrated yoga consisted of shithilikaranavyayama (loosening and strengthening), asanas, relaxation techniques, pranayama, meditation and didactic lectures on yama, niyama, jnana yoga, bhakti yoga, and karma yoga for a healthy lifestyle change. The control group also had supervised physiotherapy exercises. A total of 118 (yoga) and 117 (control) were available for final analysis. Results: Significant differences were observed within (P < 0.001, Wilcoxon's) and between groups (P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test) on all domains of the Short Form-36 (P < 0.004), with better results in the yoga group than in the control group, both at 15 th day and 90 th day. Conclusion: An integrated approach of yoga therapy is better than therapeutic exercises as an adjunct to transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound treatment in improving knee disability and quality of life in patients with OA knees.
  8 11,415 33
Effect of integrated yoga practices on immune responses in examination stress - A preliminary study
Aravind Gopal, Sunita Mondal, Asha Gandhi, Sarika Arora, Jayashree Bhattacharjee
January-June 2011, 4(1):26-32
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.78178  PMID:21654972
Background: Stress is often associated with an increased occurrence of autonomic, cardiovascular, and immune system pathology. This study was done to evaluate the impact of stress on psychological, physiological parameters, and immune system during medical term -academic examination and the effect of yoga practices on the same. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on sixty first-year MBBS students randomly assigned to yoga group and control group (30 each). The yoga group underwent integrated yoga practices for 35 minutes daily in the presence of trained yoga teacher for 12 weeks. Control group did not undergo any kind of yoga practice or stress management. Physiological parameters like heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were measured. Global Assessment of Recent Stress Scale and Spielbergers State Anxiety score were assessed at baseline and during the examination. Serum cortisol levels, IL-4, and IFN-γ levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Result: In the yoga group, no significant difference was observed in physiological parameters during the examination stress, whereas in the control group, a significant increase was observed. Likewise, the indicators of psychological stress showed highly significant difference in control group compared with significant difference in yoga group. During the examination, the increase in serum cortical and decrease in serum IFN-γ in yoga group was less significant (P<0.01) than in the control group (P<0.001). Both the groups demonstrated an increase in serum IL-4 levels, the changes being insignificant for the duration of the study. Conclusion: Yoga resists the autonomic changes and impairment of cellular immunity seen in examination stress.
  7 9,252 30
Effect of yoga on quality of life of CLBP patients: A randomized control study
Padmini Tekur, Singphow Chametcha, Ramarao Nagendra Hongasandra, Nagarathna Raghuram
January-June 2010, 3(1):10-17
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.66773  PMID:20948896
Context: In two of the earlier Randomized Control Trials on yoga for chronic lower back pain (CLBP), 12 to 16 weeks of intervention were found effective in reducing pain and disability. Aim: To study the efficacy of a residential short term intensive yoga program on quality of life in CLBP. Materials and Methods: About 80 patients with CLBP (females 37) registered for a week long treatment at SVYASA Holistic Health Centre in Bengaluru, India. They were randomized into two groups (40 each). The yoga group practiced a specific module for CLBP comprising of asanas (physical postures), pranayama (breathing practices), meditation and lectures on yoga philosophy. The control group practiced physical therapy exercises for back pain. Perceived stress scale (PSS) was used to measure baseline stress levels. Outcome measures were WHOQOL Bref for quality of life and straight leg raising test (SLR) using a Goniometer. Results: There were significant negative correlations (Pearson's, P<0.005, r>0.30) between baseline PSS with all four domains and the total score of WHOQOLBref. All the four domains' WHOQOLBref improved in the yoga group (repeated measures ANOVA P=0.001) with significant group*time interaction (P<0.05) and differences between groups (P<0.01). SLR increased in both groups (P=0.001) with higher increase in yoga (31.1 % right, 28.4 % left) than control (18.7% right, 21.5 % left) group with significant group*time interaction (SLR right leg P=0.044). Conclusion: In CLBP, a negative correlation exists between stress and quality of life. Yoga increases quality of life and spinal flexibility better than physical therapy exercises.
  6 12,090 210
Influence of yoga on mood states, distress, quality of life and immune outcomes in early stage breast cancer patients undergoing surgery
Raghavendra M Rao, HR Nagendra, Nagarathna Raghuram, C Vinay, S Chandrashekara, KS Gopinath, BS Srinath
January-June 2008, 1(1):11-20
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.36789  PMID:21829279
Context : Breast cancer patients awaiting surgery experience heightened distress that could affect postoperative outcomes. Aims : The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of yoga intervention on mood states, treatment-related symptoms, quality of life and immune outcomes in breast cancer patients undergoing surgery. Settings and Design : Ninety-eight recently diagnosed stage II and III breast cancer patients were recruited for a randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of a yoga program with supportive therapy plus exercise rehabilitation on postoperative outcomes following surgery. Materials and Methods : Subjects were assessed prior to surgery and four weeks thereafter. Psychometric instruments were used to assess self-reported anxiety, depression, treatment-related distress and quality of life. Blood samples were collected for enumeration of T lymphocyte subsets (CD4 %, CD8 % and natural killer (NK) cell % counts) and serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA and IgM). Statistical Analysis Used : We used analysis of covariance to compare interventions postoperatively. Results : Sixty-nine patients contributed data to the current analysis (yoga n = 33, control n = 36). The results suggest a significant decrease in the state ( P = 0.04) and trait ( P = 0.004) of anxiety, depression ( P = 0.01), symptom severity ( P = 0.01), distress ( P < 0.01) and improvement in quality of life ( P = 0.01) in the yoga group as compared to the controls. There was also a significantly lesser decrease in CD 56% ( P = 0.02) and lower levels of serum IgA ( P = 0.001) in the yoga group as compared to controls following surgery. Conclusions : The results suggest possible benefits for yoga in reducing postoperative distress and preventing immune suppression following surgery.
  6 7,871 469
Neurohemodynamic correlates of 'OM' chanting: A pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging study
Bangalore G Kalyani, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Rashmi Arasappa, Naren P Rao, Sunil V Kalmady, Rishikesh V Behere, Hariprasad Rao, Mandapati K Vasudev, Bangalore N Gangadhar
January-June 2011, 4(1):3-6
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.78171  PMID:21654968
Background: A sensation of vibration is experienced during audible 'OM' chanting. This has the potential for vagus nerve stimulation through its auricular branches and the effects on the brain thereof. The neurohemodynamic correlates of 'OM' chanting are yet to be explored. Materials and Methods: Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), the neurohemodynamic correlates of audible 'OM' chanting were examined in right-handed healthy volunteers (n=12; nine men). The 'OM' chanting condition was compared with pronunciation of "ssss" as well as a rest state. fMRI analysis was done using Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 (SPM5). Results: In this study, significant deactivation was observed bilaterally during 'OM' chanting in comparison to the resting brain state in bilateral orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyri, thalami and hippocampi. The right amygdala too demonstrated significant deactivation. No significant activation was observed during 'OM' chanting. In contrast, neither activation nor deactivation occurred in these brain regions during the comparative task - namely the 'ssss' pronunciation condition. Conclusion: The neurohemodynamic correlates of 'OM' chanting indicate limbic deactivation. As similar observations have been recorded with vagus nerve stimulation treatment used in depression and epilepsy, the study findings argue for a potential role of this 'OM' chanting in clinical practice.
  6 16,319 43
Effect of yoga relaxation techniques on performance of digit-letter substitution task by teenagers
Balaram Pradhan, HR Nagendra
January-June 2009, 2(1):30-34
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.43293  PMID:21234213
Background/Aims : Memory and selective attention are important skills for academic and professional performance. Techniques to improve these skills are not taught either in education or company training courses. Any system which can systematically improve these skills will be of value in schools, universities, and workplaces. Aims:To investigate possible improvements in memory and selective attention, as measured by the Digit-Letter Substitution Task (DLST), due to practice of Cyclic Meditation (CM), a yoga relaxation technique, as compared to Supine Rest (SR). Materials and Methods : Subjects consisted of 253 school students, 156 boys, 97 girls, in the age range 13-16 years, who were attending a 10-day yoga training course during summer vacation. The selected subjects had English as their medium of instruction in school and they acted as their own controls. They were allocated to two groups, and tested on the DLST, immediately before and after 22.5 minutes practice of CM on one day, and immediately before and after an equal period of SR on the other day. The first group performed CM on day 9 and SR on day 10. For the second group, the order was reversed. Results : Within each group pre-post test differences were significant for both the relaxation techniques. The magnitude of net score improvement was greater after SR (7.85%) compared to CM (3.95%). Significance levels were P < 0.4 x 10 -9 for SR and P < 0.1 x 10 -3 for CM. The number of wrong attempts also increased significantly on both interventions, even after removing two outlier data points on day 1 in the SR group. Conclusions: Both CM and SR lead to improvement in performance on the DLST. However, these relaxation techniques lead to more wrong cancellation errors.
  5 9,267 368
The effect of various breathing exercises (pranayama) in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity
Tarun Saxena, Manjari Saxena
January-June 2009, 2(1):22-25
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.53838  PMID:21234211
Background/Aim: The incidence of bronchial asthma is on increase. Chemotherapy is helpful during early course of the disease, but later on morbidity and mortality increases. The efficacy of yoga therapy though appreciated is yet to be defined and modified. Aim: To study the effect of breathing exercises ( pranayama ) in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of bronchial asthma (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) > 70%) were studied for 12 weeks. Patients were allocated to two groups: group A and group B (control group). Patients in group A were treated with breathing exercises (deep breathing, Brahmari , and Omkara , etc.) for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Patients were trained to perform Omkara at high pitch (forceful) with prolonged exhalation as compared to normal Omkara . Group B was treated with meditation for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Subjective assessment, FEV1%, and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were done in each case initially and after 12 weeks. Results: After 12 weeks, group A subjects had significant improvement in symptoms, FEV1, and PEFR as compared to group B subjects. Conclusion: Breathing exercises ( pranayama ), mainly expiratory exercises, improved lung function subjectively and objectively and should be regular part of therapy.
  5 14,301 904
Effect of integrated yoga therapy on pain, morning stiffness and anxiety in osteoarthritis of the knee joint: A randomized control study
John Ebnezar, Raghuram Nagarathna, Bali Yogitha, Hongasandra Ramarao Nagendra
January-June 2012, 5(1):28-36
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.91708  PMID:22346063
Aim: To study the effect of integrated yoga on pain, morning stiffness and anxiety in osteoarthritis of knees. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty participants with OA knees (35-80 years) were randomly assigned to yoga or control group. Both groups had transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound treatment followed by intervention (40 min) for two weeks with follow up for three months. The integrated yoga consisted of yogic loosening and strengthening practices, asanas, relaxation, pranayama and meditation. The control group had physiotherapy exercises. Assessments were done on 15 th (post 1) and 90 th day (post 2). Results: Resting pain (numerical rating scale) reduced better (P<0.001, Mann-Whitney U test) in yoga group (post 1=33.6% and post 2=71.8%) than control group (post 1=13.4% and post 2=37.5%). Morning stiffness decreased more (P<0.001) in yoga (post 1=68.6% and post 2=98.1%) than control group (post 1=38.6% and post 2=71.6%). State anxiety (STAI-1) reduced (P<0.001) by 35.5% (post 1) and 58.4% (post 2) in the yoga group and 15.6% (post 1) and 38.8% (post 2) in the control group; trait anxiety (STAI 2) reduced (P<0.001) better (post 1=34.6% and post 2=57.10%) in yoga than control group (post 1=14.12% and post 2=34.73%). Systolic blood pressure reduced (P<0.001) better in yoga group (post 1=−7.93% and post 2=−15.7%) than the control group (post 1=−1.8% and post 2=−3.8%). Diastolic blood pressure reduced (P<0.001) better in yoga group (post 1=−7.6% and post 2=−16.4%) than the control group (post 1=−2.1% and post 2=−5.0%). Pulse rate reduced (P<0.001) better in yoga group (post 1=−8.41% and post 2=−12.4%) than the control group (post 1=−5.1% and post 2=−7.1%). Conclusion: Integrated approach of yoga therapy is better than physiotherapy exercises as an adjunct to transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound treatment in reducing pain, morning stiffness, state and trait anxiety, blood pressure and pulse rate in patients with OA knees.
  5 8,941 23
Immediate effect of chandra nadi pranayama (left unilateral forced nostril breathing) on cardiovascular parameters in hypertensive patients
Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani, Madanmohan , Zeena Sanjay
July-December 2012, 5(2):108-111
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98221  PMID:22869993
Introduction : Recent studies have reported differential physiological and psychological effects produced by exclusive right and left nostril breathing and clinical research is required to prove immediate and sustained efficacy of these techniques in various psychosomatic conditions such as hypertension (HT). The present study was designed to determine immediate effects of 27 rounds of exclusive left nostril breathing, a yogic pranayama technique known as chandra nadi pranayama (CNP) on cardiovascular parameters in patients of essential HT. Materials and Methods : Twenty two patients of essential HT under regular standard medical management were individually taught to perform CNP by a qualified yoga instructor with a regularity of 6 breaths/min throughout a performance of 27 rounds of CNP. Pre and post intervention heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) measurements were recorded using non-invasive semi-automatic BP monitor and Students t test for paired data used to determine significant differences. Results : Twenty seven rounds of CNP produced an immediate decrease in all the measured cardiovascular parameters with the decrease in HR, systolic pressure (SP), pulse pressure, rate-pressure product and double product being statistically significant. Further, gender-based sub-analysis of our data revealed that our male participants evidenced significant reductions in HR and SP with an insignificant decrease in diastolic pressure, while in female participants only HR decreased significantly with an insignificant decrease in SP. Discussion and Conclusion : It is concluded that CNP is effective in reducing HR and SP in hypertensive patients on regular standard medical management. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previously published reports on immediate effects of left UFNB in patients of HT and ours is the first to report on this beneficial clinical effect. This may be due to a normalization of autonomic cardiovascular rhythms with increased vagal modulation and/or decreased sympathetic activity along with improvement in baroreflex sensitivity. Further studies are required to enable a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved as well as determine how long such a BP lowering effect persists. We recommend that this simple and cost effective technique be added to the regular management protocol of HT and utilized when immediate reduction of BP is required in day-to-day as well as clinical situations.
  5 12,875 15
REVIEW ARTICLE
Exploring the therapeutic effects of yoga and its ability to increase quality of life
Catherine Woodyard
July-December 2011, 4(2):49-54
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.85485  PMID:22022122
The objective of this study is to assess the findings of selected articles regarding the therapeutic effects of yoga and to provide a comprehensive review of the benefits of regular yoga practice. As participation rates in mind-body fitness programs such as yoga continue to increase, it is important for health care professionals to be informed about the nature of yoga and the evidence of its many therapeutic effects. Thus, this manuscript provides information regarding the therapeutic effects of yoga as it has been studied in various populations concerning a multitude of different ailments and conditions. Therapeutic yoga is defined as the application of yoga postures and practice to the treatment of health conditions and involves instruction in yogic practices and teachings to prevent reduce or alleviate structural, physiological, emotional and spiritual pain, suffering or limitations. Results from this study show that yogic practices enhance muscular strength and body flexibility, promote and improve respiratory and cardiovascular function, promote recovery from and treatment of addiction, reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and chronic pain, improve sleep patterns, and enhance overall well-being and quality of life.
  5 31,177 53
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of yogic exercise on super oxide dismutase levels in diabetics
Hemant H Mahapure, Sanjay U Shete, TK Bera
January-June 2008, 1(1):21-26
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.36792  PMID:21829280
Context : Reactive oxygen species are known to aggravate disease progression. To counteract their harmful effects, the body produces various antioxidant enzymes, viz , superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase etc. Literature reviews revealed that exercises help to enhance antioxidant enzyme systems; hence, yogic exercises may be useful to combat various diseases. Aims : This study aims to record the efficacy of yoga on superoxide dismutase, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb) and fasting blood glucose levels in diabetics. Settings and Design: Forty diabetics aged 40-55 years were assigned to experimental (30) and control (10) groups. The experimental subjects underwent a Yoga program comprising of various Asanas (isometric type exercises) and Pranayamas (breathing exercises) along with regular anti-diabetic therapy whereas the control group received anti-diabetic therapy only. Materials and Methods : Heparinized blood samples were used to determine erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glycosylated Hb levels and fasting blood specimens collected in fluoride Vacutainers were used for assessing blood glucose. Statistical Analysis Used : Data were analyzed by using 2 x 2 x 3 Factorial ANOVA followed by Scheffe's posthoc test. Results : The results revealed that Yogic exercise enhanced the levels of Superoxide dismutase and reduced glycosylated Hb and glucose levels in the experimental group as compared to the control group. Conclusion : The findings conclude that Yogic exercises have enhanced the antioxidant defence mechanism in diabetics by reducing oxidative stress.
  4 6,181 307
Influence of yoga on postoperative outcomes and wound healing in early operable breast cancer patients undergoing surgery
Raghavendra M Rao, HR Nagendra, Nagarathna Raghuram, C Vinay, S Chandrashekara, KS Gopinath, BS Srinath
January-June 2008, 1(1):33-41
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.36795  PMID:21829282
Context : Pre- and postoperative distress in breast cancer patients can cause complications and delay recovery from surgery. Objective : The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of yoga intervention on postoperative outcomes and wound healing in early operable breast cancer patients undergoing surgery. Methods : Ninety-eight recently diagnosed stage II and III breast cancer patients were recruited in a randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of a yoga program with supportive therapy and exercise rehabilitation on postoperative outcomes and wound healing following surgery. Subjects were assessed at the baseline prior to surgery and four weeks later. Sociodemographic, clinical and investigative notes were ascertained in the beginning of the study. Blood samples were collected for estimation of plasma cytokines-soluble Interleukin (IL)-2 receptor (IL-2R), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma. Postoperative outcomes such as the duration of hospital stay and drain retention, time of suture removal and postoperative complications were ascertained. We used independent samples t test and nonparametric Mann Whitney U tests to compare groups for postoperative outcomes and plasma cytokines. Regression analysis was done to determine predictors for postoperative outcomes. Results : Sixty-nine patients contributed data to the current analysis (yoga: n = 33, control: n = 36). The results suggest a significant decrease in the duration of hospital stay ( P = 0.003), days of drain retention ( P = 0.001) and days for suture removal ( P = 0.03) in the yoga group as compared to the controls. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TNF alpha levels following surgery in the yoga group ( P < 0.001), as compared to the controls. Regression analysis on postoperative outcomes showed that the yoga intervention affected the duration of drain retention and hospital stay as well as TNF alpha levels. Conclusion : The results suggest possible benefits of yoga in reducing postoperative complications in breast cancer patients.
  4 5,884 247
Increased Hatha yoga experience predicts lower body mass index and reduced medication use in women over 45 years
N Moliver, EM Mika, MS Chartrand, SWM Burrus, RE Haussmann, SBS Khalsa
July-December 2011, 4(2):77-86
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.85490  PMID:22022126
Background: Yoga has been shown to have many short-term health benefits, but little is known about the extent to which these benefits accrue over a long time frame or with frequent practice. Aims: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which body mass index (BMI) and medication use in a sample of female yoga practitioners over 45 years varied according to the length and frequency of yoga practice. Materials and Methods: We administered online surveys to 211 female yoga practitioners aged 45 to 80 years. We used regression analyses to evaluate the relationship of extent of yoga experience to both BMI and medication use after accounting for age and lifestyle factors. We also conducted comparisons with 182 matched controls. Results: Participants had practiced yoga for as long as 50 years and for up to 28 hours per week. There were significant inverse relationships between yoga experience and both BMI and medication load. These significant relationships remained after accounting for age and lifestyle factors. When we computed yoga experience in terms of total calendar years, without accounting for hours of practice, significant relationships did not remain. However, there was no obesity in the 49 participants with more than 25 years of yoga practice. Yoga practitioners were less likely than non-practitioners to use medication for metabolic syndrome, mood disorders, inflammation, and pain. Conclusions: A long-term yoga practice was associated with little or no obesity in a non-probability sample of women over 45 years. Relationships showed a dose-response effect, with increased yoga experience predicting lower BMI and reduced medication use.
  4 6,893 21
Predictors of adherence to an Iyengar yoga program in breast cancer survivors
Amy E Speed-Andrews, Clare Stevinson, Lisa J Belanger, Judith J Mirus, Kerry S Courneya
January-June 2012, 5(1):3-9
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.91693  PMID:22346059
Context: Despite the known health benefits of physical activity, participation rates in cancer survivor groups remain low. Researchers have attempted to identify alternative modes of nontraditional physical activities that may increase participation and adherence rates. This study investigated the determinants of yoga in breast cancer survivors. Aim: To examine predictors of Iyengar yoga adherence in breast cancer survivors using the theory of planned behaviour. Settings and Design: Classes were held either in Campus Recreation facilities or at the Behavioral Medicine Fitness Center at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. The study was an evaluation of an existing yoga program. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three post adjuvant therapy breast cancer survivors participating in a community-based, twice weekly, 12 week Iyengar yoga program were asked to complete baseline measures of the theory of planned behavior, demographic, medical, health/fitness, and psychosocial variables. Adherence was measured by objective attendance to the classes. Statistical Analysis: We analyzed univariate associations between predictors and yoga adherence with independent t-tests. Results: Adherence to the Iyengar yoga program was 63.9% and was predicted by stronger intention (P<0.001), greater self-efficacy (P=0.003), more positive instrumental attitude (P=0.025), higher disease stage (P=0.018), yoga experience in the past year, (P=0.044), diagnosis of a second cancer (P=0.008), lower fatigue (P=0.037), and greater happiness (P=0.023). Conclusions: Adherence to Iyengar yoga in breast cancer survivors was strongly related to motivational variables from the theory of planned behaviour. Researchers attempting to improve yoga adherence in breast cancer survivors may benefit from targeting the key constructs in the theory of planned behaviour.
  4 7,877 26
A multicomponent yoga-based, breath intervention program as an adjunctive treatment in patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder with or without comorbidities
Martin A Katzman, Monica Vermani, Patricia L Gerbarg, Richard P Brown, Christina Iorio, Michele Davis, Catherine Cameron, Dina Tsirgielis
January-June 2012, 5(1):57-65
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.91716  PMID:22346068
Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) course in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) outpatients, who after eight weeks of an appropriate dose of traditional therapy had not yet achieved remission. Subjects: The adult participants (18-65 years) were outpatients with a primary diagnosis of GAD with or without comorbidities on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Participants had a minimum of eight weeks standard treatment with an appropriate dose of a standard prescription anxiolytic, a clinician global impression-severity (CGI-S) score of 5-7, a Hamilton anxiety scale (HAM-A) total score ≥20 including a score of >2 on the anxious mood and tension items. Materials and Methods: Forty-one patients were enrolled in an open-label trial of the SKY course as an adjunct to standard treatment of GAD at the START Clinic for Mood and Anxiety Disorders, a tertiary care mood and anxiety disorder clinic in Toronto. The SKY course was administered over five days (22 h total). Subjects were encouraged to practice the yoga breathing techniques at home for 20 min per day after the course and were offered group practice sessions for 2 h once a week led by certified yoga instructors. The primary outcome measure was the mean change from pre-treatment on the HAM-A scale. Psychological measures were obtained at baseline and four weeks after completing the intervention. Results:Thirty-one patients completed the program (mean age 42.6 ± 13.3 years). Among completers, significant reductions occurred in the pre- and post-intervention mean HAM-A total score (t=4.59; P<0.01) and psychic subscale (t=5.00; P≤0.01). The response rate was 73% and the remission rate 41% as measured on the HAM-A. Conclusion: The results of this small pilot trial suggest that the SKY course represents a potentially valuable adjunct to standard pharmacotherapy in patients with GAD or treatment-resistant GAD, and warrants further investigation. In particular, changes in worry and body symptoms showed significant improvements that may further our understanding of the mechanism of change in the tolerance of anxiety and worry.
  4 11,336 38
Measures of heart rate variability in women following a meditation technique
Hyorim An, Ravi Kulkarni, R Nagarathna, HR Nagendra
January-June 2010, 3(1):6-9
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.66772  PMID:20948895
Certain time domain, frequency domain and a nonlinear measure of heart rate variability are studied in women following a meditative practice called cyclic meditation. The nonlinear measure studied is the sampling entropy. We show that there is an increase in the sampling entropy in the meditative group as compared to the control group. The time domain measure called pNNx is shown to be useful in distinguishing between the meditative state and a normal resting state.
  4 8,459 237
Here and now: Yoga in Israeli schools
Miron Ehud, Bar-Dov An, Strulov Avshalom
July-December 2010, 3(2):42-47
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.72629  PMID:21170229
Context: In the aftermath of the Second Lebanon War, a project was initiated and designed to reduce tension in the children living in the area under bombardment. Aims: To assess the impact of yoga intervention in a group of Israeli school children residing in the region affected by the Second Lebanon War. Settings and Design: The study population included 122 school children aged 8-12 years in two elementary schools in Safed (n=55 and n=67, respectively) and their teachers (n=6). The children attended the third grade (n=28), fourth grade (n=42) and sixth grade (n=52). Inclusion in the study was based on the school principal's consent to participate in the program. Materials and Methods: Assessment was conducted using three questionnaires that have been previously validated in international studies and translated to Hebrew. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis of the results included Wilcoxon Signed Ranked Tests for pre- and post-intervention comparisons and the Kruskall-Wallis test for teacher and child cross-comparisons. Results: Based on the questionnaires completed by the children and their teachers, we found that the teachers reported many statistically significant improvements in the children's concentration, mood and ability to function under pressure, although the children themselves were unaware of any change in their behavior. Enjoyment was reported by all participants, and almost all expressed an interest in continuing to practice yoga during school hours. We conclude that participation in yoga classes may be both enjoyable and beneficial to children living in stressful conditions. Conclusions: The study indicates that yoga may be beneficial as an intervention for children in postwar stress situations.
  4 10,518 54
REVIEW ARTICLE
Meditation on OM: Relevance from ancient texts and contemporary science
Sanjay Kumar, HR Nagendra, NK Manjunath, KV Naveen, Shirley Telles
January-June 2010, 3(1):2-5
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.66771  PMID:20948894
Background: In Indian scriptures the sacred syllable Om is the primordial sound from which all other sounds and creation emerge which signifies the Supreme Power. Aims: To explore the significance of the syllable OM from ancient texts and effects of OM meditation in contemporary science. Descriptions from ancient texts: The descriptions of Om have been taken from four Upanisads (Mundaka, Mandukya, Svetasvatara, and Katha), the Bhagvad Gita, and Patanjali's Yoga Sutras. Scientific studies on Om: Autonomic and respiratory studies suggest that there is a combination of mental alertness with physiological rest during the practice of Om meditation. Evoked potentials studies suggest a decrease in sensory transmission time at the level of the auditory association cortices, along with recruitment of more neurons at mesencephalic-diencephalic levels. Conclusion: It is considered that a person who realizes Om, merges with the Absolute. Scientific studies on Om suggest that the mental repetition of Om results in physiological alertness, and increased sensitivity to sensory transmission.
  4 10,857 347
Modulation of immune responses in stress by Yoga
Sarika Arora, Jayashree Bhattacharjee
July-December 2008, 1(2):45-55
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.43541  PMID:21829284
Stress is a constant factor in today's fastpaced life that can jeopardize our health if left unchecked. It is only in the last half century that the role of stress in every ailment from the common cold to AIDS has been emphasized, and the mechanisms involved in this process have been studied. Stress influences the immune response presumably through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, hypothalamic pituitary-gonadal axis, and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. Various neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, hormones, and cytokines mediate these complex bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system. The effects of stress on the immune responses result in alterations in the number of immune cells and cytokine dysregulation. Various stress management strategies such as meditation, yoga, hypnosis, and muscle relaxation have been shown to reduce the psychological and physiological effects of stress in cancers and HIV infection. This review aims to discuss the effect of stress on the immune system and examine how relaxation techniques such as Yoga and meditation could regulate the cytokine levels and hence, the immune responses during stress.
  4 14,553 1,045
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Complimentary effect of yogic sound resonance relaxation technique in patients with common neck pain
Bali Yogitha, R Nagarathna, Ebnezar John, HR Nagendra
January-June 2010, 3(1):18-25
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.66774  PMID:20948897
Background: Studies have shown that conventional treatment methods with drugs, physiotherapy and exercises for common neck pain (CNP) may be inadequate. Yoga techniques have been found to be effective complimentary therapies in chronic low back pain and also for stress reduction in other diseases. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the complimentary role of a yogic relaxation called mind sound resonance technique (MSRT) in non-surgical management of CNP. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled study, 60 patients with CNP were assigned to two groups (yoga, n=30) and (control, n=30). The yoga group received yogic MSRT for 20 minutes in supine position after the conventional physiotherapy program for 30 minutes using pre-recorded audio CD and the control group had non-guided supine rest for 20 minutes (after physiotherapy), for 10 days. MSRT provides deep relaxation for both mind and body by introspective experience of the sound resonance in the whole body while repeating the syllables A, U, M and Om and a long chant (Mahamrityunjaya mantra) several times in a meaningful sequence. Both the groups had pre and post assessments using visual pain analog scale, tenderness scoring key, neck disability score (NDS) questionnaire, goniometric measurement of cervical spinal flexibility, and state and trait anxiety inventory-Y1 (STAI-Y1). Results: Mann-Whitney U test showed significant difference between groups in pain (P<0.01), tenderness (P<0.01), neck movements (P<0.01). NDS (P<0.01) and state anxiety (STAI-Y1) showed higher reduction in yoga (P<0.01) than that in the control group. Wilcoxon's test showed a significant improvement in both groups on all variables (P<0.01). Conclusions : Yoga relaxation through MSRT adds significant complimentary benefits to conventional physiotherapy for CNP by reducing pain, tenderness, disability and state anxiety and providing improved flexibility.
  3 7,739 150
Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico
Arnulfo Ramos-Jimenez, Rosa P Hernandez-Torres, Abraham Wall-Medrano, Maria DJ Munoz-Daw, Patricia V Torres-Duran, Marco A Juarez-Oropeza
July-December 2009, 2(2):49-54
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.60044  PMID:20842264
Background: Hatha Yoga (HY) can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle- aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY) exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY) on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis) were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions). The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), % body fat and ∑ skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VE max ), maximal O 2 consumption (VO 2max ), maximal heart rate (HR max ), systolic (BPs) and diastolic blood pressure (BPd)], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day), program adherence (~85%), and exercising skills (asana performance) were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO 2max and VE max and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO 2max and HDL-C) in middle-aged and older women.
  3 8,668 265
Effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress
Amit Kauts, Neelam Sharma
January-June 2009, 2(1):39-43
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.53860  PMID:21234215
Background: Academic performance is concerned with the quantity and quality of learning attained in a subject or group of subjects after a long period of instruction. Excessive stress hampers students' performance. Improvement in academic performance and alertness has been reported in several yogic studies. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of the study was to assess the effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress. Materials and Methods: The study started with 800 adolescent students; 159 high-stress students and 142 low-stress students were selected on the basis of scores obtained through Stress Battery. Experimental group and control group were given pre test in three subjects, i.e., Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies. A yoga module consisting of yoga asanas, pranayama, meditation, and a value orientation program was administered on experimental group for 7 weeks. The experimental and control groups were post-tested for their performance on the three subjects mentioned above. Results: The results show that the students, who practiced yoga performed better in academics. The study further shows that low-stress students performed better than high-stress students, meaning thereby that stress affects the students' performance.
  3 19,075 827
Long-term effect of yogic practices on diurnal metabolic rates of healthy subjects
MS Chaya, HR Nagendra
January-June 2008, 1(1):27-4
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.36761  PMID:21829281
Background : The metabolic rate is an indicator of autonomic activity. Reduced sympathetic arousal probably resulting in hypometabolic states has been reported in several yogic studies. Aim : The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga training on diurnal metabolic rates in yoga practitioners at two different times of the day (at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m.). Materials and Methods : Eighty eight healthy volunteers were selected and their metabolic rates assessed at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. using an indirect calorimeter at a yoga school in Bangalore, India. Results and conclusions: The results show that the average metabolic rate of the yoga group was 12% lower than that of the non-yoga group ( P < 0.001) measured at 9 p.m. and 16% lower at 6 a.m. ( P < 0.001). The 9 p.m. metabolic rates of the yoga group were almost equal to their predicted basal metabolic rates (BMRs) whereas the metabolic rate was significantly higher than the predicted BMR for the non-yoga group. The 6 a.m. metabolic rate was comparable to their predicted BMR in the non-yoga group whereas it was much lower in the yoga group ( P < 0.001). The lower metabolic rates in the yoga group at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. may be due to coping strategies for day-to-day stress, decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and probably, a stable autonomic nervous system response (to different stressors) achieved due to training in yoga.
  3 5,057 286
REVIEW ARTICLE
A review of the scientific studies on cyclic meditation
Pailoor Subramanya, Shirley Telles
July-December 2009, 2(2):46-48
DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.60043  PMID:20842263
  3 7,336 273
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