International Journal of Yoga
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    Table of Contents - Current issue
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May-August 2019
Volume 12 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 89-175

Online since Monday, May 6, 2019

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EDITORIAL  

Interdisciplinary science and yoga: The challenges ahead p. 89
Govindasamy Agoramoorthy
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_9_19  PMID:31143014
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

The psycho-linguistic effects of yoga: A lexical analysis of shifts in positivity, agency, and creativity p. 91
Robin Blades, David MacFadyen
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_45_18  PMID:31143015
Introduction: Yoga is understood in the scientific community as a powerful de-stressor. Reduced stress has been linked to improved mood, increased agency, and enhanced creativity. Objective: This study investigates these potential psychological effects of yoga by comparing two lexical data sets, composed of nearly 3000 words collected before and after yoga classes. Methods: Each word is scored along three dimensions: positivity, agency, and creativity. Positivity is calculated using SentiWords Sentiment Dictionary 1.0; agency is determined by grammatical categorization; and creativity is viewed as a function of the set distribution. Results: Analysis reveals a shift toward more positive and less agentful self-reporting after practice. No significant difference is found in creativity.Conclusion: This study provides insight into how yoga alters thought processes and affects the mental health of practitioners.
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Effectiveness of adjuvant yoga therapy in diabetic lung: A randomized control trial Highly accessed article p. 96
Rajasekar Balaji, Meena Ramanathan, Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani, Pajanivel Ranganadin, Karthik Balachandran
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_20_18  PMID:31143016
Context: Recent studies provide ample evidence of the benefits of yoga in various chronic disorders. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and Sandler coined the term “Diabetic Lung” for the abnormal pulmonary function detected in diabetic patients due underlying pulmonary dysfunction. Yoga therapy may help in achieving better pulmonary function along with enhanced glycaemic control and overall health benefits. Aim: To study the effect of adjuvant yoga therapy in diabetic lung through spirometry. Settings and Design: Randomized control trial was made as interdisciplinary collaborative work between departments of Yoga Therapy, Pulmonary Medicine and Endocrinology, of MGMC & RI, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth Puducherry. Materials and Methods: 72 patients of diabetic lung as confirmed by spirometry (<70% of expected) were randomized into control group (n=36) who received only standard medical treatment and yoga group (n=36) who received yoga training thrice weekly for 4 months along with standard medical management. Yoga therapy protocol included yogic counseling, preparatory practices, Asanas or static postures, Pranayama or breathing techniques and relaxation techniques. Hathenas of the Gitananda Yoga tradition were the main practices used. Spirometry was done at the end of the study period. Data was analyzed by Student's paired and unpaired 't' test as it passed normality. Results: There was a statistically significant (P < 0.05) reduction in weight, and BMI along with a significant (P < 0.01) improvement in pulmonary function (FEV1, FVC) in yoga group as compared to control group where parameters worsened over study period. Conclusion: It is concluded from the present RCT that yoga has a definite role as an adjuvant therapy as it enhances standard medical care and hence is even more significant in routine clinical management of diabetes, improving physical condition and pulmonary function.
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The daily influences of yoga on relational outcomes off of the mat p. 103
Mo; Kishida, Jacqueline Mogle, Steriani Elavsky
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_46_18  PMID:31143017
Background: Despite the wide array of health benefits that have been evidenced with yoga, a clear gap exists examining how yoga impacts connections with oneself and to others. Aims: The objectives of the present study were twofold: (1) to describe the day-to-day (in)variability in daily yoga practice and relational outcomes and (2) to examine the direct and indirect effects of yoga practice on relational outcomes. Methods: Community-dwelling yoga practitioners (n = 104, age range: 18–76 years) with a yoga practice of at least once a week were recruited for a 21-day daily diary study. Practitioners were asked to complete daily Internet surveys at the end of the day which included questions with respect to one's yoga practice and relational domains (i.e., mindfulness, [self-]compassion, and social connectedness). Results: Multilevel analyses revealed yoga and relational outcomes to be dynamic phenomena, indicated by substantial variation (intraclass correlations = 0.34–0.48) at the within-person level. On days when an individual practiced more yoga than their usual, greater mindfulness (b = 2.93, standard error [SE] = 0.39, P < 0.05) and self-compassion (b = 1.45, SE = 0.46, P < 0.05) were also reported. 1-1-1 multilevel mediation models demonstrated that yoga has an indirect effect on both compassion and social connectedness through increases in mindfulness at the within- and between-person levels. In models testing self-compassion as the mediator, the indirect effect of daily yoga practice on compassion was significant, although limited to the within-person level. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a routine yoga practice could positively impact how a practitioner relates to theirselves and to others, both on a day-to-day basis, and with accumulated practice.
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Quasi prospective comparative study on effect of yoga among prediabetics on progression of cardiovascular risk factors p. 114
Sudhanshu Kacker, Neha Saboo, Sonali Sharma, Jitender Sorout
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_49_18  PMID:31143018
Introduction: Prediabetic patients have higher risk for cardiovascular diseases, which further increases the rate of mortality. Reason for the rate of increase may be lack of observation, follow-up programs, and self-awareness about the conditions of disease. Lifestyle interventions such as yoga can prove to be a beneficial nonpharmacologic intervention in preventing progression of prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. This study highlights importance of short-term intervention, i.e., yoga in prediabetic patients and use it as a tool for primary prevention of diabetes. Methods: This was an interventional study among adults aged 30–50 years in RUHS college of Medical Sciences and Associated Rukmani Devi Beni Prasad Jaipuria Hospital in Jaipur city. The design of study was quasi prospective comparative study. A total of 102 prediabetic patients of age group 30–50 years were recruited from Jaipuria Hospital. These were divided into two groups: study group (Group A, n = 51) were engaged in yoga session and control group (B, n = 51) not performed any yoga session. Results: Yoga intervention resulted in a significant decline in blood glucose (P < 0.001), glycated hemoglobin (P < 0.01), lipid profile cholesterol (P < 0.01), triglyceride (P < 0.01), and low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.01), but high-density lipoprotein (P < 0.02) and very low-density lipoprotein increase (P < 0.03) but not statistically significant relative to the control group. Conclusion: Short-term yoga intervention is helpful in the control of glycemic parameters like blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin and lipid profile in prediabetic patients. This preliminary study indicates that a yoga program would be a possible risk reduction option for adults at high risk for type 2 diabetes. In addition, yoga holds promise as an approach to reducing cardiometabolic risk factors and increasing exercise self-efficacy for prediabetics performing yoga.
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The efficacy of yogic breathing exercise Bhramari pranayama in relieving symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis p. 120
K Abishek, Satvinder Singh Bakshi, Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_32_18  PMID:31143019
Introduction: A multitude of modalities are available for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis, however, each has its side effects and compliance issues. Bhramari pranayama, which is a breathing exercise in the practice of yoga, offers an inexpensive and free from side effect modality in this regard. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Bhramari pranayama in relieving the symptoms of chronic sinusitis. Methodology: A total of 60 patients with chronic sinusitis were randomly divided into two groups, one received conventional treatment of chronic sinusitis and the other group was in addition taught to practice yogic breathing exercise Bhramari pranayama. The patients were advised to practice this breathing exercise twice a day and were followed up at 1, 4, and 12 weeks using the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22 score). Results: The mean SNOT-22 score in the group following the Bhramari pranayama breathing exercise using the ANOVA test improved from 39.13 ± 9.10 to 24.79 ± 8.31 (P = 0.0002), this improvement was seen by the end of 4 weeks itself and continued until the 12th week of assessment. Conclusion: Integrating regular practice of Bhramari pranayama along with the conventional management of chronic rhinosinusitis is more effective than conventional management alone.
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Kinematics of suryanamaskar using three-dimensional motion capture p. 124
Rajani P Mullerpatan, Bela M Agarwal, Triveni Shetty, Girish R Nehete, Omkar Subbaramajois Narasipura
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_26_18  PMID:31143020
Background: Suryanamaskar, a composite yogasana consisting of a sequence of 12-consecutive poses, producing a balance between flexion and extension is known to have positive health benefits for obesity and physical fitness management, upper limb muscle endurance, and body flexibility. However, limited information is available on biomechanical demands of Suryanamaskar, i.e., kinematic and kinetic. Aims: The present study aimed to explore the kinematics of spine, upper, and lower extremity during Suryanamaskar to enhance greater understanding of Suryanamaskar required for safe and precise prescription in the management of musculoskeletal disorders. Methods: Three-dimensional motion capture of Suryanamaskar was performed on 10 healthy trained yoga practitioners with 12-camera Vicon System (Oxford Metrics Group, UK) at a sampling frequency of 100 Hz using 39 retro-reflective markers. Data were processed using plug-in-gait model. Analog data were filtered at 10Hz. Joint angles of the spine, upper, and lower extremities during 12-subsequent poses were computed within Vicon Nexus. Results: Joint motion was largely symmetrical in all poses except pose 4 and 9. The spine moved through a range of 58° flexion to 44° extension. In the lower quadrant, hip moved from 134° flexion to 15° extension, knee flexed to a maximum of 140°, and 3° hyperextension. Ankle moved in a closed kinematic chain through 40° dorsiflexion to 10° plantarflexion. In the upper quadrant, maximum neck extension was76°, shoulder moved through the overhead extension of 183°–56° flexion, elbow through 22°–116° flexion, and wrist from 85° to 3° wrist extension. Conclusions: Alternating wide range of transition between flexion and extension during Suryanamaskar holds potential to increase the mobility of almost all body joints, with stretch on anterior and posterior soft tissues and challenge postural balance mechanisms through a varying base of support.
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Effect of yoga on immune parameters, cognitive functions, and quality of life among HIV-positive children/adolescents: A pilot study p. 132
BP Hari Chandra, Mavathur N Ramesh, Hogasandra R Nagendra
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_51_18  PMID:31143021
Context: HIV/AIDS individuals have problems relating to immune system, quality of life (QOL), and cognitive functions (CFs). Yoga is found to be useful in similar conditions. Hardly, any work is reported on yoga for HIV-positive adults/adolescents. Hence, this study is important. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the effect of yoga on immune parameters, CFs, and QOL of HIV-positive children/adolescents. Settings and Design: Single-group, pre–post study with 4-month yoga intervention. Methods: The study had 18 children from an HIV/AIDS rehabilitation center for children/adolescents. CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8 ratio, and viral loads were studied. CF tests included six letter cancellation test, symbol digit modalities test, digit-span forward backward test, and Stroop tests. QOL was assessed using PedsQL-QOL and fatigue questionnaire. Depression was assessed using CDI2-SR. Statistical Analysis Used:t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, as applicable. Results: The study included 18 children/adolescents. There was improvement in general health of the participants. There was statistically significant increase in CD4 cells counts (p = 0.039) and significant decrease in viral load (p = 0.041). CD4/CD8 ratio moved to normal range. QOL significantly improved. CFs had mixed results with improved psychomotor performance (PP) and reduced executive functions. Conclusions: There was improvement in general health and immune parameters. While depression increased, QOL improved. CFs showed mixed results with improved PP and reduced executive functions.
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Effect of residential yoga camp on psychosocial fitness of adolescents p. 139
Astha Choukse, Amritanshu Ram, HR Nagendra
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_29_18  PMID:31143022
Background: Adolescence is a key phase of socialization, where improved psychosocial fitness helps to promote socioeconomic productivity in societies. Psychosocial fitness also has an impact on the academic performance, overall health, and quality of life, throughout life. The present study evaluates the effect of yoga intervention on psychosocial fitness among adolescents. Materials and Methods: A single group, pre and post yoga interventional study was carried out in three independent cohorts (batches 1, 2, and 3), having sample size of 148, 167, and 195 respectively. A 7-day integrated yoga intervention was given in a residential setting. Psychosocial assessments included social competence, empathy, altruism, parent relationship, and peer friendship. Data were collected from the participants and their parents using respective versions of the scales. While pre- and post-data were collected from all the adolescent participants, pre- and post-data from parents were collected for 340 and 43 parents only. The objective of the analyses was to evaluate the effect of the yoga program and check the consistency of these effects. Results: Significant changes (P < 0.05) were seen in social competence, empathy, and altruism in batches 2 and 3, whereas changes in batch 1 showed nonsignificant improvements. Analyses of the parental data indicated a significant improvement in parent relationship (P = 0.035) and also nonsignificant improvement in all other outcomes. Conclusion: Results suggested that yoga intervention might help in improving psychosocial fitness in adolescents. It also helped to demonstrate that administering yoga was acceptable and feasible in a residential setting.
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PERSPECTIVE Top

Lifestyle - A common denominator for the onset and management of migraine headache: Complementing traditional approaches with scientific evidence p. 146
MS Vasudha, NK Manjunath, HR Nagendra
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_59_18  PMID:31143023
Background: Ayurveda and Yoga have gained popularity in the management of various chronic health problems associated with pain including migraine headache. It is evident from both scientific as well as traditional literature that stress, diet, sleep, and exposure to extreme climatic conditions act as triggering factors for the onset of migraine. Hence, it is essential to focus on lifestyle including diet as important factors for prevention and as adjuvant factors in the management of migraine headache. Aim: The aim was to propose a new perspective to the understanding of migraine headache keeping in view the role of lifestyle including diet. Methods: Classical Ayurveda texts and traditional Yoga scriptures were used to compile information on the role of lifestyle including diet in the onset and management of migraine headache. This was complemented by PubMed-based review of scientific literature. Outcome: Ayurveda texts provide an extensive information about the basic understanding, causes, precipitating factors, and management of migraine headache, while Yoga texts refer to the concept of mental stress (adhi) leading to physical health problems (vyadhi). It is evident from the literature that diet, sleep, exposure to extreme climatic conditions, and mental stress play an important role in the onset and management of migraine headache. Conclusion: Lifestyle appears to be the common factor for both onset and management of migraine headache.
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SHORT COMMUNICATIONS Top

#Yoga on instagram: Understanding the nature of yoga in the online conversation and community p. 153
Jillian Lacasse, Sara Santarossa, Sarah J Woodruff
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_50_18  PMID:31143024
Background and Aim: The purpose of the present study was to investigate #yoga on Instagram to better understand the nature of who is posting about yoga, in addition to whether the traditional teachings are present. Methods: A multimethod approach was utilized for this study. Using the Netlytic program, a text and content analysis (n = 35,000) was conducted to examine authors' captions/comments associated with #yoga collected over 9 days. An image and caption coding scheme was developed and used to analyze 100 unique authors and images from the larger dataset. Results: The text analysis revealed #fitness was the most cited word (n = 5491), suggesting an emphasis on the physical aspect of yoga. The content analysis suggested that the majority of words were categorized as good feelings (n = 32,747; 51%) and appearance (n = 30,351; 42%), while only a small amount was categorized as traditional teachings (n = 1703; 3%). Images revealed mostly women (n = 89; 89%), who were underweight (n = 68; 68%), in minimal clothing (70%), demonstrating a basic pose (n = 51; 51%), in an indoor environment (n = 57; 57%). Conclusion: According to the text, content, and image analyses, #yoga on Instagram seems to emphasize the physical nature of yoga as consistent with the commercialization of yoga and not traditional teachings of the practice.
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Self-esteem and performance in attentional tasks in school children after 4½ months of yoga p. 158
Kankan Gulati, Sachin Kumar Sharma, Shirley Telles, Acharya Balkrishna
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_42_18  PMID:31143025
Introduction: Physical activity is known to improve self-esteem of children. Low self-esteem causes distraction of attention which leads to decline in performance in attentional tasks. The performance of a child at school depends on multiple factors, a major factor being attention. Hence, the present study was designed to see (i) the effect 4½ months of yoga practice had on children's (a) performance in attentional tasks, (b) self-esteem and (ii) the correlation between yoga performance and (a) academic performance, (b) behavior with peers, (c) behavior with teachers, (d) punctuality, (e) participation in extra-curricular activities. Methods: Participants were 116 children with group mean age ± standard deviation; 10.2 ± 0.6 years. We assessed them for (i) self-esteem using Indian Adaptation of Battle's Self Esteem Inventory for Children and (ii) performance in attentional tasks using two different tests, i.e., six letter cancellation test (SLCT) and digit letter substitution test (DLST) and (iii) the teacher's rating scale which analyzed the teacher's assessment of the children's academic performance, behavior with peers, behavior with teachers, punctuality, yoga practice, and participation in extracurricular activities on an analog scale, before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed with PASW (SPSS Statistics 24) using the t-test for paired data. Results: There was a significant improvement in the scores of (i) SLCT (P < 0.001), (ii) DLST (P < 0.001), (iii) social self-esteem (P < 0.01), (iv) academic self-esteem (P < 0.001), and (v) total self-esteem (P < 0.001) after 60 min/day of yoga practice for 4½ months. Pearson correlation showed a positive correlation between yoga performance and the behavior with teachers (r = 0.221 and P < 0.05). Conclusions: Yoga practice is beneficial for school children as it improves attention, concentration, memory, motor speed, and self-esteem (social, academic and total). In addition, improved yoga performance improves behavior with teachers, thus improving discipline in school.
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Evidence base of yoga studies on cardiovascular health: A bibliometric analysis p. 162
KN Srihari Sharma, Nidhi Ram Choudhary, Pailoor Subramanya
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_6_18  PMID:31143026
Noncommunicable diseases including coronary artery disease contribute to approximately 50% of global mortality. Pharmacological treatment alone may not be a panacea for such diseases since it may be associated with various other adverse effects. Hence, strategies such as Yoga involving healthy lifestyle and stress management are widely sought by the patient population. Materials and Methods: An electronic search of PubMed as a standard bibliographic database was performed through February 2015 using the keywords “Yoga” and “Cardiovascular.” Studies with Yoga as the independent variable and parameters related to cardiac health as the dependent variable were included and exclusion criteria were applied. Results: A total of 149 publications were identified which met the inclusion criteria for analysis. Of the total publications, 44% were clinical trials of which 19% were randomized controlled trials which may be categorized as high-quality ones. An upward trend in the overall research in this area is evident. Major work has been accomplished by researchers of the United States (38%) and India (29%). Conclusion: The survey indicates that the number of publications in the field of “Yoga” and “Cardiovascular” health has increased rapidly in the late years. Analysis comprising the nation/state helps define its status with regard to its counterparts and helps understand science priorities and disease control strategies in an effort to provide cost-effectiveness and quality control. There is a need for further high-quality studies in the field of “Yoga” and “Cardiovascular” diseases to validate the effects of Yoga on health parameters.
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Comparison of yoga versus physical exercise on executive function, attention, and working memory in adolescent schoolchildren: A randomized controlled trial p. 172
Satish P Vhavle, Raghavendra Mohan Rao, NK Manjunath
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_61_18  PMID:31143027
Purpose: Executive function, attention, and memory are an important indicator of cognitive health in children. In this study, we analyze the effect of yoga and physical exercise on executive functioning, attention, and memory. Methods: In this prospective two-armed randomized controlled trial, around 802 students from ten schools across four districts were randomized to receive daily 1 h yoga training (n = 411) or physical exercise (n = 391) for 2 months. Executive function, attention, and memory were studied using Trail Making Test (TMT). Yoga (n = 377) and physical exercise (n = 371) students contributed data to the analyses. The data were analyzed using intention-to-treat approach using Student's t-test. Results: There was a significant increase in numerical TMT (TMTN) values within yoga (t = −2.17; P < 0.03) and physical activity (PA) (t = −3.37; P < 0.001) groups following interventional period. However, there was no significant change in TMTN between yoga and PA groups (t = 0.44; P = 0.66). There was a significant increase in alphabetical TMT (TMTA) values within yoga (t = 6.21; P < 0.00) and PA groups (t = 1.19; P < 0.234) following interventional period. However, there was no significant change in TMTA between yoga and PA groups (t = 3.46; P = 0.001). Conclusion: The results suggest that yoga improves executive function, attention, and working memory as effectively as physical exercise intervention in adolescent schoolchildren.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Yoga as a safer form of physical activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus: The bidirectional property of yoga in establishing glucose homeostasis p. 174
Venugopal Vijayakumar, Ramesh Mavathur, NK Manjunath, Nagarathna Raghuram
DOI:10.4103/ijoy.IJOY_57_18  PMID:31143028
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