| Abstract|| |
Introduction: The development of many lifestyle-related chronic disorders occurs as a result of stress and anxiety. In recent years, in order to overcome lifestyle-related problems, people are increasingly making use of mindfulness meditation mobile applications despite the fact that there is no substantial evidence that this practice has benefits for their health. Aim: Testing the effectiveness of this method in reducing stress and anxiety through the development of a mindfulness meditation mobile application was the aim of this project. Methodology: Two independent studies were conducted. For both the studies, IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0 software was used to perform the statistical analysis. The first study was conducted cross-sectionally between 111 meditators and 111 non-meditators. The use of Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS) was employed in assessing the stress and anxiety. It was found out that stress (P < 0.000) and anxiety (P < 0.000) are significantly reduced for meditators in comparison with the non-meditators. A substantial reduction was observed using the cross-sectional study, and a longitudinal study was carried out to affirm the effectiveness of this method in reducing stress and anxiety. 67 users were shortlisted for the study and their stress and anxiety level was measured before and after practicing mindfulness meditation. Result: The result revealed that there was a substantial reduction in stress (P = 0.01) and anxiety (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Therefore, mindfulness meditation mobile application can serve as another medium of delivery in addressing the problems of stress and anxiety. However, future research is warranted to determine the biological effects of mindfulness meditation.
Keywords: Anxiety, mindfulness meditation, mobile application, stress
|How to cite this article:|
Duraimani SL. A Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of the effects of a mindfulness meditation mobile application platform on reducing stress and anxiety. Int J Yoga 2019;12:226-32
|How to cite this URL:|
Duraimani SL. A Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of the effects of a mindfulness meditation mobile application platform on reducing stress and anxiety. Int J Yoga [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Aug 11];12:226-32. Available from: http://www.ijoy.org.in/text.asp?2019/12/3/226/265740
| Introduction|| |
Stress and anxiety are frequently seen as significant contributors to disease, and clinical evidence is mounting for specific negative effects of stress on immunological and cardiovascular-related diseases.,,, Numerous psychological treatments are available to manage stress and anxiety. These can decrease people's suffering and enhance their quality of life.,, However, self-help programs may be effective in treating these problems as well. Meditation is considered one of the self-help tools that help cope with daily stress and anxiety. It is recommended by many clinical psychologists to reduce stress and anxiety level in people's daily life.,
Many types of meditation have been discovered and practiced, some of which are concentration meditation, Om meditation, transcendental meditation, Zen meditation, loving-kindness meditation, mindfulness meditation, and others. In recent times, mindfulness meditation is quite famous and practiced worldwide.,,,,
Mindfulness meditation techniques have emerged from the ancient meditative practices of the Buddhist tradition. It facilitates breathing, focused attention, and attention toward thoughts in a detached manner. Therefore, it exerts its effect on attention regulation, body awareness, nonjudgmental awareness of thoughts, emotional stability, and a change in the perception of self. Hence, it produces beneficial effects on well-being and reduces psychiatric and stress-related symptoms. Mindfulness meditation is, therefore, increasingly being incorporated into psychotherapeutic interventions.
In recent times, mindfulness meditation training is being delivered using mobile applications (apps). It is considered as a tool that can guide the practitioner through the meditation techniques effectively, something that is popularly called “guided mindfulness meditation.”
There is growing evidence of the positive impact of mindfulness on psychological stress, anxiety, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.,,,, However, limited research has been done on the effectiveness of the mindfulness-based mobile apps on stress and anxiety.,, There are different health claims that have been made by some prominent mobile app developers, which are not based on any research supporting the use of their programs. Most of them use the existing general research on mindfulness to support the effectiveness of their apps without carrying any proper research. In presenting how their apps relate, most companies simply provide a link to a recent ongoing mindfulness study or a more extensive meta-analysis on mindfulness. Moreover, this in no way whatsoever gives a true picture of what their app is all about.
Hence, it was decided that it is important to determine the effectiveness of the mobile-based mindfulness meditation as a potential alternative delivery medium to address the issue of psychological stress and anxiety.
The aim was to determine the effectiveness of a mindfulness meditation mobile app in reducing perceived stress and anxiety.
Two independent studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of a mindfulness meditation mobile app in reducing perceived stress and anxiety.
- A cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the perceived stress and anxiety between meditators (users who practiced mindfulness meditation for 90 days using the mobile app) and nonmeditators (new users who have not practiced any form of meditation)
- A longitudinal study was conducted to measure the perceived stress and anxiety at the baseline and after practicing mindfulness meditation for 21 days using the mindfulness meditation app.
Materials and Methods
Mobile app development
A mindfulness meditation app called “aware” was developed. It comprised the foundation program on mindfulness meditation techniques. The mindfulness techniques included in the foundation program are presented in [Table 1]. This program was designed as a guided session. Moreover, the content of the program was based on Kabat-Zinn mindfulness meditation program. An Android developer, an iOS developer, and a web designer constructed the mobile app for Android and iOS. The app was uploaded to the Google and Apple play stores.
|Table 1: Mindfulness meditation techniques included in the 21-day foundation program|
Click here to view
Once the app was uploaded to the Google and Apple play stores, Facebook notifications were sent on the “aware mindfulness meditation” web page that was specifically created for the app. Participants all around the world participated in this research study by downloading the mobile app. The users that were interested in participating in the research study completed a questionnaire. Two thousand eight hundred and sixty-three users completed the questionnaire before starting the meditation practice. Two hundred and twenty-three users completed the questionnaire after completing 21 days of the foundation program. One hundred and eighteen users completed the questionnaire after completing 90 days of the foundation program.
Users who remained active after 90 days of participation were shortlisted for the meditation group. As a result, 111 meditators were shortlisted for the study. Among 2863 newly enrolled users, 111 nonmeditators were shortlisted using a simple random sampling technique performed using IBM SPSS Statistics for windows, Version 23.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
The users who had completed the questionnaire before and after 21 days of practicing mindfulness meditation alone were considered for this study. As a result, 67 users were shortlisted for the study.
In both the studies, users who practiced other relaxation techniques such as yoga, physical exercise, massage, visualization exercise, and other relaxation exercises were excluded from the study. Users who had not completed the questionnaire and who had taken the survey twice were excluded from the study. The users from the cross-sectional study and the longitudinal study did not overlap with each other.
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), a short version of the DASS, was used to assess psychological symptoms [Table 2]. The stress scale assesses the sensitivity levels of chronic nervous arousal, difficulties in relaxation, and feelings of being upset/agitated, irritability or over-reactivity, and impatience. The anxiety scale assesses autonomic arousal, skeletal muscle effects, situational anxiety, and subjective experience of anxious affect. The participants were asked to use a four-point rating scale (0 = did not apply to me at all, 1 = applied to me to some degree or some of the time, 2 = applied to me to a considerable degree or a good part of the time, and 3 = applied to me very much or most of the time). In the present study, only the stress and anxiety scale was measured by calculating the sum of scores for the relevant items pertinent to the stress and anxiety domain. Higher total scores represent higher levels of the measured factors.
|Table 2: Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 subscale severity total scorings|
Click here to view
Regarding demographic characteristics, the user's age, gender, and ethnicity were collected.
The Research Ethics Committee of Uber Health Tech Pvt. Ltd, Bengaluru, approved this study. All participants were assured that their personal data would be confidential and would not be disclosed at the time of publishing the research study.
In this study, the app itself was used for data collection. The DASS and the demographic information were uploaded to the app so that when the users downloaded the app, they would fill the questionnaire if they were interested in participating in the research study.
In the cross-sectional study, a Chi-square test was used to compare between meditators and nonmeditators for demographic variables such as age, gender, and ethnicity. The Mann–Whitney U-test was performed to determine the differences between the group effects of perceived stress and anxiety. In the longitudinal study, a Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to determine the difference between the group effects of perceived stress and anxiety. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant in all tests. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 23.0 software.
| Results|| |
[Table 3] shows the demographic characteristics of the participants. To test whether the proportion of the demographic characteristics was different in each group, a Chi-square test with α equal to 0.05 as a criterion for significance was used. Statistically significant differences between meditators and nonmeditators were found for gender χ (1, n = 222) =8.07, P < 0.001, and ethnicity χ (5, n = 222) =21.65, P < 0.001. No statistical significant differences were found between meditators and nonmeditators for age χ (4, n = 222) =2.82, P = 0.58.
|Table 3: Cross-sectional study demographic characteristics of the participants (n=222)|
Click here to view
A Mann–Whitney U-test was performed to determine the differences between the meditators and nonmeditators for the perceived stress and anxiety score. A statistically significant reduction in the perceived stress and anxiety scores for meditators compared to the nonmeditators was found [Table 4].
|Table 4: Cross-sectional study: Mann-Whitney U-test score of stress and anxiety|
Click here to view
The longitudinal study allowed to additionally control demographic characteristics of participants, as the post and pretest scores describe the same individuals. [Table 5] shows the demographic characteristics of the participants. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to determine whether there is a statistical difference between the pre- and posttest score for perceived stress and anxiety. The result indicated that the posttest ranks were lower than the pretest ranks for stress (n = 67, pretest mean rank = 30.89, posttest mean rank = 30.32, Z = −2.41, P = 0.01) and anxiety (n = 67, pretest mean rank = 33.55, posttest mean rank = 31.99, Z = −2.41, P = 0.02). Using the Mann–Whitney U-test, statistically significant differences for stress change score among Europeans (n = 26) compared to Caucasian (n = 23) (n = 49, European stress change score mean rank = 19.81 and Caucasian stress score change mean rank = 30.87, Z = −2.70, P = 0.05) were found. There were also statistically significant differences for anxiety change score among Europeans (n = 26) compared to Caucasian (n = 23) (n = 49, European stress change score mean rank = 19.90 and White American stress change score mean rank = 30.76, Z = −2.66, P = 0.05).
|Table 5: Longitudinal study demographic characteristics of the participants (n=67)|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
This is the first study where the effectiveness of a mindfulness meditation app was studied by considering the users of the app. The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of using a mindfulness meditation app in reducing stress and anxiety. Two independent studies were conducted: one was a cross-sectional study and the other one was a longitudinal study.
In the cross-sectional study, there was a statistically significant decrease in perceived stress and anxiety in meditators compared to nonmeditators. In the longitudinal study, there was a statistically significant difference in the stress and anxiety change score. Moreover, a statistically significant difference was found in Europeans compared to Caucasian in relation to their stress and anxiety change score. This shows that there are disparities in the level at which Europeans and Caucasian experience stress and anxiety. Psychological stress and anxiety are common problems that constitute a large socioeconomic burden, and self-help programs delivered by an app would provide an easy way to offer treatment in the day-to-day life. Despite increasing numbers of mindfulness apps, very few of them have been tested for effectiveness.,, The effectiveness of a mindfulness meditation app for perceived stress and anxiety was determined.
As predicted, in both the cross-sectional and the longitudinal studies, a significant reduction in the stress score, as measured by the stress scale from the DASS, was established. This supports existing research findings that mindfulness meditation can have positive psychological effects on people exposed to stress.,
The explanation for the disparities related to stress may be found in allostatic load as well as the weathering framework theories. The first theory, allostatic load, places emphasis on the effect of cumulative risks that result from inveterate exposure to the challenges of life as well as stress-impairing allostasis (the ability of the body to conserve homeostasis). Placing an excessively high demand on the regulatory systems affects the activity of the autonomic, the metabolic, the neuroendocrine, and the cardiovascular systems, which brings about a state of illness, for example, diabetes. In any situation where there is a limited or overused potential adaptive and protective stress response, either behavioral or physiological, it results in an impaired health as well as an allostatic overload.
Stress responses can be overused when the mind indulges in a constant flow of thoughts either about the future or the past. Individuals tend to become overwhelmed with thoughts, and this constant flow of thoughts may cause a chemical imbalance, like an increased level of cortisol which, in term, affects the physiology of the body.
To bring about a reduction in the health disparities that are related to stress, there must be a program to which everyone can have easy access to. For over 10 years now, many research studies to check for the advantages of both complementary and alternative approaches to medicine in attaining reduction of the effects and the money spent on inveterate health conditions have been funded by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Meditation is one important intervention in the management of stress that was reported in research studies. From the data obtained from the National Institutes of Health, the main aim of carrying out a study in this area is for the purpose of examining the ways in which meditation and other interventions for the mind and the body can “enhance resilience, positive affect, and coping to improve health and well-being and prevent or slow disease progression.”
One form of meditation, mindfulness, enhances the self-regulation of attention to be more focused on the present-moment experience and to let go of the cognitive fixation on past or future events., Many research studies have shown that mindfulness meditation helps reduce negative reactions to stress and improve reactions to depression and overall well-being.,,,,
In a famous Dow Chemical Company study, employees who practiced mindfulness-based stress reduction program for 7 weeks showed a reduction in perceived stress. Company-based mindfulness meditation programs, however, are relatively novel. As a result, few studies have been conducted to assess their effectiveness. One such study, administered to employees of Dow Chemical Company, noted increases in workplace satisfaction and decreases in stress, as well as improvements in resilience, vigor, and mindfulness (measured by the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire) compared to the wait-list control group. Therefore, mindfulness meditation reduces multiple negative dimensions of psychological stress.
In both the cross-sectional and the longitudinal studies, there was a statistically significant reduction in the anxiety score. These research findings were supported by other research studies. In a recent study, to examine the effects of a short-term web-based mindfulness program, participants who self-described as stressed were recruited, and there was a random placement of 70 participants in a treatment group (n = 35) and a control group (n = 35). A mindfulness program was conducted in two ways, including 10 min of exercises in each day, for 6 days in the space of a week for 2 weeks. The training was completed by only 34 participants in the control group and 20 participants in the treatment group. Measures of anxiety, stress, symptoms of depression, as well as a questionnaire on mindfulness meditation were administered before the beginning of the treatment, after 1 week of treatment, and at the end (2 weeks) of the treatment. From the results, it was discovered that there was an increment in mindfulness skills as well as a reduction in the levels of perceived anxiety, stress, and symptoms of depression as a result of mindfulness training.
Anxiety is a cognitive state connected to an inability to regulate the emotional responses to perceived threats. Practicing mindfulness meditation strengthens a person's cognitive ability to regulate emotions such as anxiety. For example, while practicing mindfulness meditation, thoughts that may bring worry will be viewed as thoughts, rather than the reality of the situation. The shift from a judgmental thought process to a nonjudgmental awareness might bring down the anxiety level and help users handle anxiety-provoking situations.
From the longitudinal study carried out, it was observed that there was a substantial reduction in the level of stress and anxiety for Europeans when compared to Caucasian. This submission is the first research study to work on determining how effective is the use of mindfulness meditation in populations in Europe over the ones in America, focusing on Caucasian participants.
The major limitation in the cross-sectional study was finding the significant differences in gender and ethnicity among meditators and nonmeditators. As a result of the fact that the data did not follow a normal distribution, it was impossible to determine the disparities in stress and anxiety for meditators and nonmeditators after variables such as ethnicity and gender had been controlled for. Nevertheless, for the longitudinal study, an extra control was used for the demographic characteristics making it possible to see that the reduction in the level of stress and anxiety as a result of practicing of mindfulness meditation was independent.
The major limitation to the longitudinal study was that there was no recruitment of a comparable control group. This led to the reduction in the ability of the researchers to link the substantive changes to the mindfulness meditation with some level of certainty. It also reduced the power to reaching clear conclusions regarding the nature of the effects of the mindfulness meditation. Nevertheless, there are two aspects of the research that supports the experimental hypothesis, which suggest that the lack of a control group was not a problem in a situation like this. The first aspect is associated with the fact that the effects that were seen were founded on research that has already been conducted before and which are reasonably strong. The results were associated with the predicted direction. The second aspect is that there would have been some substantive results that opposed the expected direction if some of the observed effects were based on chance. Therefore, based on the fact that all the effects that were observed were all in the predicted direction, the results suggest an in-depth design.
It is suggested, therefore, that these results are taken as preliminary results and that a study that is completely randomized is done to verify them, as this will compensate for the potential deficiency associated with the lack of an effective control group.
Since majority of the participants were Caucasian and Europeans, the findings cannot be generalized. Hence, further randomized studies involving participants from different ethnicities and from different geographical areas should be conducted to generalize the findings of the present study to the world population. Furthermore, the present study involved only the healthy participants. To extend the findings of the present study to the patient population, randomized studies should be conducted in patients with different levels of anxiety and depression. Biochemical markers of physiological stress and anxiety such as endorphins, cortisol, and oxidative stress markers should also be evaluated along with the anxiety and depression scores to further validate the role of the intervention in reducing stress and anxiety.
| Conclusion|| |
The time commitment and the cost of participating in a mindfulness meditation program in person can be significant. However, learning and practicing mindfulness meditation using a mobile app can be easy, cost-effective, and associated with significant positive effects that are similar to those when learning mindfulness in the presence of a teacher.
It was found that the effect of mindfulness meditation on perceived stress and anxiety was consistent with expectations. The result of the perceived stress and anxiety measures suggests that mindfulness meditation had a pronounced positive psychological effect on the users. Future research is warranted to determine the biological effects of mindfulness meditation.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R. Mind and immunity. In: Goleman D, Gurin J, editors. Mind/Body Medicine. NY: Consumer Reports; 1993. p. 39-59.
Kiecolt-Glaser JK, McGuire L, Robles TF, Glaser R. Psychoneuroimmunology: Psychological influences on immune function and health. J Consult Clin Psychol 2002;70:537-47.
Segerstrom SC, Miller GE. Psychological stress and the human immune system: A meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry. Psychol Bull 2004;130:601-30.
Bosma H, Peter R, Siegrist J, Marmot M. Two alternative job stress models and the risk of coronary heart disease. Am J Public Health 1998;88:68-74.
McGovern MP, Lambert-Harris C, Acquilano S, Xie H, Alterman AI, Weiss RD, et al.
Acognitive behavioral therapy for co-occurring substance use and posttraumatic stress disorders. Addict Behav 2009;34:892-7.
Frögéli E, Djordjevic A, Rudman A, Livheim F, Gustavsson P. A randomized controlled pilot trial of acceptance and commitment training (ACT) for preventing stress-related ill health among future nurses. Anxiety Stress Coping 2016;29:202-18.
Barabasz A. Evidence based abreactive ego state therapy for PTSD. Am J Clin Hypn 2013;56:54-65.
Kabat-Zinn J. Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clin Psychol Sci Pract 2006;10:144-56.
Hofmann SG, Sawyer AT, Witt AA, Oh D. The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review. J Consult Clin Psychol 2010;78:169-83.
Harinath K, Malhotra AS, Pal K, Prasad R, Kumar R, Kain TC, et al.
Effects of Hatha yoga and Omkar meditation on cardiorespiratory performance, psychologic profile, and melatonin secretion. J Altern Complement Med 2004;10:261-8.
Kalyani BG, Venkatasubramanian G, Arasappa R, Rao NP, Kalmady SV, Behere RV, et al.
Neurohemodynamic correlates of 'OM' chanting: A pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Int J Yoga 2011;4:3-6.
] [Full text]
Alexander CN, Langer EJ, Newman RI, Chandler HM, Davies JL. Transcendental meditation, mindfulness, and longevity: An experimental study with the elderly. J Pers Soc Psychol 1989;57:950-64.
Hofmann SG, Grossman P, Hinton DE. Loving-kindness and compassion meditation: Potential for psychological interventions. Clin Psychol Rev 2011;31:1126-32.
Hölzel BK, Lazar SW, Gard T, Schuman-Olivier Z, Vago DR, Ott U. How does mindfulness meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. Perspect Psychol Sci 2011;6:537-59.
Chiesa A, Serretti A. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for stress management in healthy people: A review and meta-analysis. J Altern Complement Med 2009;15:593-600.
Roemer L, Lee JK, Salters-Pedneault K, Erisman SM, Orsillo SM, Mennin DS. Mindfulness and emotion regulation difficulties in generalized anxiety disorder: Preliminary evidence for independent and overlapping contributions. Behav Ther 2009;40:142-54.
Teasdale JD, Segal ZV, Williams JM, Ridgeway VA, Soulsby JM, Lau MA. Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. J Consult Clin Psychol 2000;68:615-23.
Zylowska L, Ackerman DL, Yang MH, Futrell JL, Horton NL, Hale TS. Mindfulness meditation training in adults and adolescents with ADHD: A feasibility study. J Atten Disord 2008;11:737-46.
Howells A, Ivtzan I, Eiroa-Oros FJ. Putting the 'App' in happiness: A randomized controlled trial of a smartphone-based mindfulness intervention to enhance wellbeing. J Happiness Stud 2016;17:163-85.
Carissoli C, Villani D, Riva G. Does a meditation protocol supported by a mobile application help people reduce stress? Suggestions from a controlled pragmatic trial. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 2015;18:46-53.
Blödt S, Pach D, Roll S, Witt CM. Effectiveness of app-based relaxation for patients with chronic low back pain (Relaxback) and chronic neck pain (Relaxneck): Study protocol for two randomized pragmatic trials. Trials 2014;15:490.
Kabat-Zinn J. Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness. New York: Dell Publishing; 1990.
Lovibond SH, Lovibond PF. Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. Sydney: Psychology Foundation of Australia; 1995.
Mackenzie CS, Poulin PA, Seidman-Carlson R. A brief mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention for nurses and nurse aides. Appl Nurs Res 2006;19:105-9.
Irving JA, Dobkin PL, Park J. Cultivating mindfulness in health care professionals: A review of empirical studies of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Complement Ther Clin Pract 2009;15:61-6.
McEwen BS. Brain on stress: How the social environment gets under the skin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109 Suppl 2:17180-5.
Geronimus AT, Hicken M, Keene D, Bound J. “Weathering” and age patterns of allostatic load scores among blacks and whites in the United States. Am J Public Health 2006;96:826-33.
Seeman T, Epel E, Gruenewald T, Karlamangla A, McEwen BS. Socio-economic differentials in peripheral biology: Cumulative allostatic load. Ann N
Y Acad Sci 2010;1186:223-39.
González-Cabrera J, Fernández-Prada M, Iribar-Ibabe C, Peinado JM. Acute and chronic stress increase salivary cortisol: A study in the real-life setting of a national examination undertaken by medical graduates. Stress 2014;17:149-56.
Khoury B, Lecomte T, Fortin G, Masse M, Therien P, Bouchard V, et al.
Mindfulness-based therapy: A comprehensive meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev 2013;33:763-71.
Reb J, Narayanan J, Chaturvedi S. Leading mindfully: Two studies on the influence of supervisor trait mindfulness on employee well-being and performance. Mindfulness 2014;5:36-45.
Aikens KA, Astin J, Pelletier KR, Levanovich K, Baase CM, Park YY, et al.
Mindfulness goes to work: Impact of an online workplace intervention. J Occup Environ Med 2014;56:721-31.
Vesa N, Liedberg L, Rönnlund M. Two-week web-based mindfulness training reduces stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in individuals with self-reported stress: a randomized control trial. Int J Neurorehabil 2016;3:209.
Arredondo M, Sabaté M, Valveny N, Langa M, Dosantos R, Moreno J, et al.
Amindfulness training program based on brief practices (M-PBI) to reduce stress in the workplace: A randomised controlled pilot study. Int J Occup Environ Health 2017;23:40-51.
Kersemaekers W, Rupprecht S, Wittmann M, Tamdjidi C, Falke P, Donders R, et al.
Aworkplace mindfulness intervention may be associated with improved psychological well-being and productivity. A preliminary field study in a company setting. Front Psychol 2018;9:195.
Shanthi Lakshmi Duraimani
E-1, 15/1 First Cross, Syndicate Bank Colony, Bannerghatta Road, Bengaluru - 560 083, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]